Taurine increases bile acid pool size and reduces bile saturation index in the hamster

Open AccessPublished:September 01, 1987DOI:
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      There is evidence that increased availability of taurine enhances the proportion of taurine-conjugated bile acids in bile. To explore the possibility that taurine treatment could also influence hepatic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, we fed female hamsters for 1 week and measured both the biliary lipid content and the microsomal level of the rate-limiting enzymes of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis. In these animals the cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was significantly greater in respect to controls (P less than 0.05). The total HMG-CoA reductase activity, as well as that of the active form, was similarly increased. The stimulation of 7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol synthesis was associated with an expansion of the bile acid pool size in taurine-fed animals. Taurine feeding was observed to induce an increase in bile flow as well as in the rate of excretion of bile acids, whereas the secretion rate of cholesterol in bile was decreased. As a consequence, the saturation index was significantly lower in taurine-fed animals (P less than 0.05). The possible mechanisms through which taurine exhibits the modification of the enzyme activities and of the biliary lipid composition are discussed.


        • Gaull G.E.
        • Pesantes-Morales H.
        • Charles E.
        Taurine in human nutrition: overview.
        Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 1985; 179: 3-21
        • Hofmann A.F.
        • Roda A.
        Physicochemical properties of bile acids and their relationship to biological properties: an overview of the problem.
        J. Lipid Res. 1984; 25: 1477-1489
        • Yousef I.M.
        • Tuchweber B.
        • Vonk R.J.
        • Mass D.
        • Audet M.
        • Roy C.C.
        Lithocholate cholestasis. Sulfated glycolithocholate-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in rats.
        Gastroenterology. 1981; 80: 233-241
        • Dorvil N.P.
        • Yousef I.M.
        • Turchweber B.
        • Roy C.C.
        Taurine prevents cholestasis induced by lithocholic acid sulfate in guinea pigs.
        Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1983; 37: 221-231
        • Sjövall J.
        Dietary glycine and taurine effects on bile acid conjugation in man: bile acids and steroids. 75..
        Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1959; 100: 676-678
      1. conjugation in man. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 100: 676-678.

        • Hardison W.G.M.
        • Grundy S.M.
        Effect of bile acid conjugation pattern on bile acid metabolism in normal humans.
        Gastroenterology. 1983; 84: 617-620
        • Batta A.K.
        • Salen G.
        Taurine increases the effectiveness of ursodeoxycholic acid as gallstone dissolving agent.
        Hepatology. 1981; 1 (Abstract).: 494
        • Igimi H.
        • Carey M.C.
        Cholesterol gallstone dissolution in bile: dissolution kinetics of crystalline (anhydrate and monohydrate) cholesterol with chenodeoxycholate, ursodeoxycholate, and their glycine and taurine conjugates.
        J. Lipid Res. 1981; 22: 254-270
        • Okamoto E.
        • Rassin D.K.
        • Zucker C.L.
        • Salen G.S.
        • Heird W.C.
        Role of taurine in feeding the low-birthweight infant.
        J. Pediatr. 1984; 104: 936-940
        • Watkins J.B.
        • Jarvenpaa A.L.
        • Sczepanik-Van Leeuwen P.
        • Klein P.D.
        • Rassin D.K.
        • Gaull G.
        • Raiha N.C.R.
        Feeding the low-birth-weight infant. V. Effects of taurine, cholesterol and human milk on bile acid kinetics.
        Gastroenterology. 1983; 85: 793-800
        • Handelsman B.
        • Bonorris G.
        • Marks G.W.
        1 nrichment of bile with tauroursodeoxycholic acid and biliary cholesterol saturation in hamsters.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1982; 243: G424-G427
        • Bosisio E.
        • Cighetti G.
        • Galli Kienle M.
        • Tritapepe R.
        • Galli G.
        HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7 ahydroxylase in human liver.
        Life Sci. 1984; 34: 2075-2081
        • Hardison W.G.M.
        Relation of hepatic taurine pool size to bile acid conjugation in man and animals.
        in: Sulf ur Amino Acids: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. Alan R. Liss Inc., New York1983: 407-417
        • Jacobsen J.G.
        • Smith Jr., L.H.
        Biochemistry and physiology of taurine and taurine derivatives.
        Physiol. Rev. 1968; 48: 424-511
        • Fromm H.
        • Amin P.
        • Klein H.
        • Kupke I.
        Use of a simple enzymatic assay for cholesterol analysis in human bile.
        J. Lipid Res. 1980; 21: 259-261
        • Gurantz D.
        • Laker M.F.
        • Hofmann A.F.
        Enzymatic measurement of choline-containing phospholipids in bile.
        J. Lipid Res. 1981; 22: 373-376
        • Talalay P.
        Enzymatic analysis of steroid hormones.
        Methods Biochem. Anal. 1960; 8: 119-143
        • Thomas P.J.
        • Hofmann A.F.
        A simple calculation of lithogenic index of bile: expressing biliary lipid composition on rectangular coordinates.
        Gastroenterology. 1973; 65: 698-700
        • Hegardt F.G.
        • Dam H.
        The solubility of cholesterol in aqueous solution of bile salts and lecithin.
        Z. Ernaehrungswiss. 1971; 10: 239-243
        • Nakayama F.
        • Nakagaki M.
        Quantitative determination of bile acids in bile with reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. 1980; 183: 287-293
        • Bradford M.M.
        A rapid and sensitive method for quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding.
        Anal. Biochem. 1976; 72: 248-254
        • Cighetti G.
        • Galli G.
        • Galli Kienle M.
        A simple method for studies on the regulation of cholesterol synthesis using freshly isolated hepatocytes.
        Eur. J. Biochem. 1983; 133: 573-578
        • Cighetti G.
        • Santariello E.
        • Galli G.
        Evaluation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity by multiple selection monitoring.
        Anal. Biochem. 1981; 110: 153-158
        • Cighetti G.
        • Bosisio E.
        • Galli G.
        • Galli Kienle M.
        The effect of cholestyramine on liver HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase in various laboratory animals.
        Life Sci. 1983; 33: 2483-2488
        • Sanghvi A.
        • Grassi E.
        • Bartman C.
        • Lester R.
        • Galli Kienle M.
        • Galli G.
        Measurement of cholesterol- 7α-hydroxylase activity with selected ion monitoring.
        J. Lipid Res. 1981; 22: 720-724
        • Miettinen T.A.
        • Ahrens E.H.
        • Grundy S.M.
        Quantitative isolation and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of total dietary and fecal neutral steroids.
        J. Lipid Res. 1965; 6: 411-424
        • Grundy S.M.
        • Ahrens Jr., E.H.
        • Miettinen T.D.
        Quantitative isolation and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of total fecal bile acids.
        J. Lipid Res. 1965; 6: 397-410
        • Hardison W.G.M.
        • Proffitt J.H.
        Influence of hepatic taurine concentration on bile acid conjugation with taurine.
        Am. J. Physiol. 1977; 232: E75-E79
        • Glantz S.A.
        Primer of Biostatistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York1977: 63-90
        • Turley S.D.
        • Spady D.K.
        • Dietchy J.M.
        Altera tion of the degree of biliary cholesterol saturation in the hamster and rat by manipulation of the pools of preformed newly synthesized cholesterol.
        Gastroenterology. 1983; 84: 253-264
        • Kibe A.
        • Wake C.
        • Kuramoto T.
        • Hoshita T.
        Effect of dietary taurine on bile acid metabolism in guinea pigs.
        Lipids. 1980; 15: 224-229
        • Yamanaka Y.
        • Tsuji K.
        • Ichikawa T.
        • Nakagawa Y.
        • Kawamura M.
        Effect of dietary taurine and cholesterol gallstone formation and tissue cholesterol contents in mice.
        J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 1985; 31: 225-232
        • Bosisio E.
        Dietary and pharmacological control of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase.
        in: Proceedings of the IX In ternationa] Symposium on Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg1987 (In press.)
        • Brown M.S.
        • Goldstein J.L.
        A receptormediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis.
        Science. 1986; 232: 34-47
        • Ziegler D.M.
        Role of reversible oxidation-reduction of enzyme thiols-disulphides in metabolic regulation.
        Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1985; 54: 305-329
        • Roitelman J.
        • Shechter J.
        Regulation of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Evi dence for thiol-dependent allosteric modulation of enzyme activity.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1984; 259: 870-877
        • Kalles I.
        • Wikvall K.
        Role of sulfhydryl groups in catalytic activity of purified cholesterol 7 alphahydroxylase system from rabbit and rat liver microsomes.
        Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1981; 100: 1361-1369
        • Danielsson H.
        • Kalles I.
        • Wikvall K.
        Regulation of hydroxylations in biosynthesis of bile acids. Isolation of a protein from rat liver cytosol stimulating reconstituted cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity.
        J. Biol. Chem. 1984; 259: 4258-4262
        • Andersson S.
        • Boström H.
        Effect of disulfiram on rat liver cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase.
        Biochem. Pharmacol. 1984; 33: 2930-2932
        • Hassan A.S.
        • Hackley J.J.
        • Jeffrey E.H.
        Role of glutathione in the regulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid biosynthesis.
        Steroids. 1984; 44: 373-380
        • Higashi T.
        • Tateishi N.
        • Sakamoto Y.
        Liver glutathione as a reservoir of L-cysteine.
        in: Sulfur Amino Acid: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects. Alan R. Liss Inc., New York1983: 419-434