Autoxidation of human low density lipoprotein: loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and generation of aldehydes

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      The alteration of structural and biological properties of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) exposed to oxidative conditions is in part ascribed to lipid peroxidation. The objective of this investigation was to measure quantitatively several parameters in oxidizing LDL indicative for lipid peroxidation. Exposure of freshly prepared EDTA-free LDL to an oxygen-saturated buffer led to a complete depletion of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol within 6 hr, thereafter lipid peroxidation commenced as indicated by the kinetics of the loss of linoleic (18:2) and arachidonic (20:4) acids, the formation of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products and fluorescent apoB. Within 24 hr of oxidation, on average 79 nmol of 18:2 (initial 345) and 12.8 nmol of 20.4 (initial 25.6) were oxidized per mg of LDL and the sample contained in total 7.1 nmol of aldehydes with the following molar distribution: 36.6% malonaldehyde, 25% hexanal, 8.9% propanal, 8.2% 4-hydroxynonenal, 7.6% butanal, 4.1% 2.4-heptadienal, 3.4% pentanal, 3.4% 4-hydroxyhexenal, and 2.5% 4-hydroxyoctenal. Malonaldehyde was predominantly (93%) in the aqueous phase, whereas the other aldehydes remained mostly (34-98%) within the LDL particle, where the total aldehyde concentration was in the range of 12 mM. Oxidized LDL exhibited a 1.6-fold enhanced electrophoretic mobility. Similarily, native LDL incubated for 5 hr with aldehydes showed increased electrophoretic mobility. At equal concentrations (5 mM) 4-hydroxynonenal was most effective, followed by 2,4-heptadienal, hexanal, and malonaldehyde. This study reports for the first time the rate and extent of the change of LDL constituents occurring during lipid peroxidation.

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