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Effect of apolipoprotein E phenotype on diet-induced lowering of plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Open AccessPublished:November 01, 1994DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2275(20)39943-0
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      The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) has recommended that dietary total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol intake be reduced to < or = 30% of calories, < 10% of calories, and < 300 mg/day, respectively (Step 1 diet) in the general population to reduce plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and heart disease risk. We examined the LDL cholesterol-lowering response to such a diet (26% fat, 8% saturated fat, and 201 mg/day of cholesterol) as compared to an average American diet (39% fat, 15% saturated fat, and 435 mg/day of cholesterol) in 128 subjects using diet periods of 4-24 weeks for each diet phase. The mean LDL cholesterol reduction was 15% in males (n = 83) and 8% in post-menopausal females (n = 45). The effect of apolipoprotein (apo) E phenotype on responsiveness was examined. LDL cholesterol lowering in males was 14% for 60 apoE3/3 subjects, 23% for 10 apoE3/4 subjects, and 16% for 13 apoE3/2 subjects. Male apoE3/4 subjects had a significantly greater LDL cholesterol reduction (P = 0.006) and a greater decrease in the LDL/HDL ratio (P = 0.047) than apoE3/3 subjects. In females, 7% lowering in LDL cholesterol was observed in 34 apoE3/3 subjects and 11% lowering was observed in 7 apoE3/4 subjects (P = 0.12). A meta-analysis of data from published studies supports this conclusion. These data indicate that apoE phenotype modulates the LDL cholesterol-lowering response to a diet meeting NCEP Step 1 criteria, and that male subjects carrying the apoE4 allele are more responsive than other subjects.

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