- HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) may protect against cardiovascular disease. However, CEC assays are not standardized, hampering their application in large cohorts and comparison between studies. To improve standardization, we systematically investigated technical differences between existing protocols that influence assay performance that have not been previously addressed. CEC was measured in 96-well plates using J774A.1 macrophages labeled with BODIPY-cholesterol and incubated for 4 h with 2% apolipoprotein B-depleted human serum.
- Analysis of structural and functional parameters of HDL has gained significant momentum in recent years because they are stronger predictors of cardiovascular risk than HDL-cholesterol levels. Surprisingly, in most HDL studies, very low attention is paid to HDL storage, which might critically affect functional properties. In the present study, we systematically examined the impact of storage and freezing on the structural/functional properties of freshly isolated HDL. Initial damage to HDL starts between week 1 and week 4 of storage.
- LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Due to the complex regulation mechanism, it has been difficult to mimic the physiological conditions under which LPL acts in vitro. We demonstrate that isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), using human plasma as substrate, overcomes several limitations of previously used techniques. The high sensitivity of ITC allows continuous recording of the heat released during hydrolysis. Both initial rates and kinetics for complete hydrolysis of plasma lipids can be studied.
- Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are bioactive signaling lysophospholipids that activate specific G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface triggering numerous biological events. In circulation, S1P and LPA associate with specific carrier proteins or chaperones; serum albumin binds both S1P and LPA while HDL shuttles S1P via interactions with apoM. We used a series of kinetic exclusion assays in which monoclonal anti-S1P and anti-LPA antibodies competed with carrier protein for the lysophospholipid to measure the equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for these carrier proteins binding S1P and the major LPA species.