- Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent signaling lipid, and state-dependent alterations in plasma LPA make it a promising diagnostic marker for various diseases. However, plasma LPA concentrations vary widely among reports, even under normal conditions. These variations can be attributed, at least in part, to the artificial metabolism of LPA after blood collection. Here, we aimed to develop an optimized plasma preparation method that reflects the concentration of LPA in the circulating blood. The main features of the devised method were suppression of both LPA production and degradation after blood collection by keeping whole blood samples at low temperature followed by the addition of an autotaxin inhibitor to plasma samples.
- Current methods for determining “LDL-C” in clinical practice measure the cholesterol content of both LDL and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)-C]. We developed a high-throughput, sensitive, and rapid method to quantitate Lp(a)-C and improve the accuracy of LDL-C by subtracting for Lp(a)-C (LDL-Ccorr). Lp(a)-C is determined following isolation of the Lp(a) on magnetic beads linked to monoclonal antibody LPA4 recognizing apolipoprotein(a). This Lp(a)-C assay does not detect cholesterol in plasma samples lacking Lp(a) and is linear up to 747 nM Lp(a).
- Atherosclerosis is associated with increased lipid peroxidation, leading to generation of multiple oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs), contributing to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestation. Oxidized cholesteryl esters (OxCEs) are a major class of OSEs found in human plasma and atherosclerotic tissue. To evaluate OxCEs as a candidate biomarker, we generated a novel mouse monoclonal Ab (mAb) specific to an OxCE modification of proteins. The mAb AG23 (IgG1) was raised in C57BL6 mice immunized with OxCE-modified keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and hybridomas were screened against OxCE-modified BSA.
- Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are lipid molecules linked to carbohydrate units that form the plasma membrane lipid raft, which is clustered with sphingolipids, sterols, and specific proteins, and thereby contributes to membrane physical properties and specific recognition sites for various biological events. These bioactive GSL molecules consequently affect the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. Thus, altered expression of GSLs in various diseases may be of importance for disease-related biomarker discovery.
- Sulfatides are found in brain as components of myelin, oligodendrocytes, and neurons but are also present in various visceral tissues. Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A, leading to severe white matter disease due to the accumulation of sulfatides and lysosulfatides. To study the physiological role of sulfatides, accessible and sensitive quantitative methods are required. We developed a sensitive LC/MS/MS method to quantify total sulfatide and lysosulfatide content as well as individual molecular species in urine and plasma from MLD patients and plasma and tissues from an MLD mouse model.