- Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that regulates various processes, including cell migration and cancer progression. Autotaxin (ATX) is a lysophospholipase D-type exoenzyme that produces extracellular LPA. In contrast, glycerophosphodiesterase (GDE) family members GDE4 and GDE7 are intracellular lysophospholipases D that form LPA, depending on Mg2+ and Ca2+, respectively. Since no fluorescent substrate for these GDEs has been reported, in the present study, we examined whether a fluorescent ATX substrate, FS-3, could be applied to study GDE activity.
- Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is the precursor of many important signaling molecules in eukaryotic cells and, most probably, PI also has important functions in cellular membranes. However, these functions are poorly understood, which is largely due to that i) only few PI species with specific acyl chains are available commercially and ii) there are no simple methods to synthesize such species. Here, we present a simple biochemical protocol to synthesize a variety of labeled or unlabeled PI species from corresponding commercially available phosphatidylcholines.
- LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Due to the complex regulation mechanism, it has been difficult to mimic the physiological conditions under which LPL acts in vitro. We demonstrate that isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), using human plasma as substrate, overcomes several limitations of previously used techniques. The high sensitivity of ITC allows continuous recording of the heat released during hydrolysis. Both initial rates and kinetics for complete hydrolysis of plasma lipids can be studied.
- Sphingoid base derivatives have attracted increasing attention as promising chemotherapeutic candidates against lifestyle diseases such as diabetes and cancer. Natural sphingoid bases can be a potential resource instead of those derived by time-consuming total organic synthesis. In particular, glucosylceramides (GlcCers) in food plants are enriched sources of sphingoid bases, differing from those of animals. Several chemical methodologies to transform GlcCers to sphingoid bases have already investigated; however, these conventional methods using acid or alkaline hydrolysis are not efficient due to poor reaction yield, producing complex by-products and resulting in separation problems.
- Ceramidases catalyze the cleavage of ceramides into sphingosine and fatty acids. Previously, we reported on the use of the RBM14 fluorogenic ceramide analogs to determine acidic ceramidase activity. In this work, we investigated the activity of other amidohydrolases on RBM14 compounds. Both bacterial and human purified neutral ceramidases (NCs), as well as ectopically expressed mouse neutral ceramidase hydrolyzed RBM14 with different selectivity, depending on the N-acyl chain length. On the other hand, microsomes from alkaline ceramidase (ACER)3 knockdown cells were less competent at hydrolyzing RBM14C12, RBM12C14, and RBM14C16 than controls, while microsomes from ACER2 and ACER3 overexpressing cells showed no activity toward the RBM14 substrates.
- Lyso-glycosphingolipids (lyso-GSLs), the N-deacylated forms of glycosphingolipids (GSLs), are important synthetic intermediates for the preparation of GSL analogs. Although lyso-GSLs can be produced by hydrolyzing natural GSLs using sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase (SCDase), the yield for this reaction is usually low because SCDase also catalyzes the reverse reaction, ultimately establishing an equilibrium between hydrolysis and synthesis. In the present study, we developed an efficient method for controlling the reaction equilibrium by introducing divalent metal cation and detergent in the enzymatic reaction system.
- The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is predominantly biosynthesized by sn-1-diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGL-α) in the CNS. Selective inhibitors of DAGL-α will provide valuable insights in the role of 2-AG in endocannabinoid signaling processes and are potential therapeutics for the treatment of obesity and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we describe the development of a natural substrate-based fluorescence assay for DAGL-α, using a coupled enzyme approach. The continuous setup of our assay allows monitoring of DAGL-α activity in real-time and in a 96-well plate format.