- The study aims were to develop a new isoform-independent enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the measurement of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], validate its performance characteristics, and demonstrate its accuracy by comparison with the gold-standard ELISA method and an LC-MS/MS candidate reference method, both developed at the University of Washington. The principle of the new assay is the capture of Lp(a) with monoclonal antibody LPA4 primarily directed to an epitope in apolipoprotein(a) KIV2 and its detection with monoclonal antibody LPA-KIV9 directed to a single antigenic site present on KIV9.
- The localization of many membrane proteins within cholesterol- and sphingolipid-containing microdomains is essential for proper cell signaling and function. These membrane domains, however, are too small and dynamic to be recorded, even with modern super-resolution techniques. Therefore, the association of membrane proteins with these domains can only be detected with biochemical assays that destroy the integrity of cells require pooling of many cells and take a long time to perform. Here, we present a simple membrane fluidizer–induced clustering approach to identify the phase-preference of membrane-associated molecules in individual live cells within 10–15 min.
- A major challenge of lipidomics is to determine and quantify the precise content of complex lipidomes to the exact lipid molecular species. Often, multiple methods are needed to achieve sufficient lipidomic coverage to make these determinations. Multiplexed targeted assays offer a practical alternative to enable quantitative lipidomics amenable to quality control standards within a scalable platform. Herein, we developed a multiplexed normal phase liquid chromatography-hydrophilic interaction chromatography multiple reaction monitoring method that quantifies lipid molecular species across over 20 lipid classes spanning wide polarities in a single 20-min run.
- Vitamin D is an important fat-soluble prohormone with pleiotropic effects on human health, such as immunomodulation of the innate and adaptive immune system. There is an unmet clinical need for a rapid screening platform for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OH-D) determination without chromatographic separation that offers better precision and accuracy than immunoassays. Here, we introduce a high-throughput method for assessing vitamin D status from blood specimens based on direct infusion-MS/MS (DI-MS/MS) following click derivatization using 2-nitrosopyridine.
- FA esters of hydroxy FAs (FAHFAs) are lipokines with extensive structural and regional isomeric diversity that impact multiple physiological functions, including insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Because of their low molar abundance, FAHFAs are typically quantified using highly sensitive LC-MS/MS methods. Numerous relevant MS databases house in silico-spectra that allow identification and speciation of FAHFAs. These provisional chemical feature assignments provide a useful starting point but could lead to misidentification.
- Fatty acid beta-oxidation is a key process in mammalian lipid catabolism. Disturbance of this process results in severe clinical symptoms, including dysfunction of the liver, a major beta-oxidizing tissue. For a thorough understanding of this process, a comprehensive analysis of involved fatty acid and acyl-carnitine intermediates is desired, but capable methods are lacking. Here, we introduce oxaalkyne and alkyne fatty acids as novel tracers to study the beta-oxidation of long- and medium-chain fatty acids in liver lysates and primary hepatocytes.
- 4β-Hydroxycholesterol (4β-OHC) is formed by Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A and has drawn attention as an endogenous phenotyping probe for CYP3A activity. However, 4β-OHC is also increased by cholesterol autooxidation occurring in vitro due to dysregulated storage and in vivo by oxidative stress or inflammation, independent of CYP3A activity. 4α-hydroxycholesterol (4α-OHC), a stereoisomer of 4β-OHC, is also formed via autooxidation of cholesterol, not by CYP3A, and thus may have clinical potential in reflecting the state of cholesterol autooxidation.
- Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes whose subcellular concentration and function are tightly regulated by de novo biosynthesis, transport, and storage. Although recent reports have suggested diverse functions of cellular cholesterol in different subcellular membranes, systematic investigation of its site-specific roles has been hampered by the lack of a methodology for spatiotemporal manipulation of cellular cholesterol levels. Here, we report the development of a new cholesterol depletion system that allows for spatiotemporal manipulation of intracellular cholesterol levels.