JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Elevated lipoprotein(a) as a predictor for coronary events in older menElevated circulating lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is associated with an increased risk of first and recurrent cardiovascular events; however, the effect of baseline Lp(a) levels on long-term outcomes in an elderly population is not well understood. The current single-center prospective study evaluated the association of Lp(a) levels with incident acute coronary syndrome to identify populations at risk of future events. Lp(a) concentration was assessed in 755 individuals (mean age of 71.9 years) within the community and followed for up to 8 years (median time to event, 4.5 years; interquartile range, 2.5–6.5 years).
Genetic and secondary causes of severe HDL deficiency and cardiovascular diseaseWe assessed secondary and genetic causes of severe HDL deficiency in 258,252 subjects, of whom 370 men (0.33%) and 144 women (0.099%) had HDL cholesterol levels <20 mg/dl. We excluded 206 subjects (40.1%) with significant elevations of triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, or liver enzymes and men receiving testosterone. We sequenced 23 lipid-related genes in 201 (65.3%) of 308 eligible subjects. Mutations (23 novel) and selected variants were found at the following gene loci: 1) ABCA1 (26.9%): 2 homozygotes, 7 compound or double heterozygotes, 30 heterozygotes, and 2 homozygotes and 13 heterozygotes with variants rs9282541/p.R230C or rs111292742/c.-279C>G; 2) LCAT (12.4%): 1 homozygote, 3 compound heterozygotes, 13 heterozygotes, and 8 heterozygotes with variant rs4986970/p.S232T; 3) APOA1 (5.0%): 1 homozygote and 9 heterozygotes; and 4) LPL (4.5%): 1 heterozygote and 8 heterozygotes with variant rs268/p.N318S.
Large-scale deletions of the ABCA1 gene in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemiaCopy-number variations (CNVs) have been studied in the context of familial hypercholesterolemia but have not yet been evaluated in patients with extreme levels of HDL cholesterol. We evaluated targeted, next-generation sequencing data from patients with very low levels of HDL cholesterol (i.e., hypoalphalipoproteinemia) with the VarSeq-CNV® caller algorithm to screen for CNVs that disrupted the ABCA1, LCAT, or APOA1 genes. In four individuals, we found three unique deletions in ABCA1: a heterozygous deletion of exon 4, a heterozygous deletion that spanned exons 8 to 31, and a heterozygous deletion of the entire ABCA1 gene.
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivorsSurvivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children, are at increased risk of developing late cardiometabolic conditions. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma lipid profile, Apo distribution, and lipoprotein composition of 80 childhood ALL survivors compared with 22 healthy controls. Our results show that, despite their young age, 50% of the ALL survivors displayed dyslipidemia, characterized by increased plasma triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol, as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol.
Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate with CD36 SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduce CD36Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). Five promoter variants associated with CMs, four with delayed TG clearance and five with LDL particle number.
Associations between intensive diabetes therapy and NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles in type 1 diabetesOur objective is to define differences in circulating lipoprotein subclasses between intensive versus conventional management of type 1 diabetes during the randomization phase of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). NMR-determined lipoprotein subclass profiles (NMR-LSPs), which estimate molar subclass concentrations and mean particle diameters, were determined in 1,294 DCCT subjects after a median of 5 years (interquartile range: 4–6 years) of randomization to intensive or conventional diabetes management.