JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
The interaction between ABCA1 polymorphism and physical activity on the HDL-cholesterol levels in a Japanese populationFew studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women).
Rare DEGS1 variant significantly alters de novo ceramide synthesis pathwayThe de novo ceramide synthesis pathway is essential to human biology and health, but genetic influences remain unexplored. The core function of this pathway is the generation of biologically active ceramide from its precursor, dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramides have diverse, often protective, biological roles; conversely, increased ceramide levels are biomarkers of complex disease. To explore the genetics of the ceramide synthesis pathway, we searched for deleterious nonsynonymous variants in the genomes of 1,020 Mexican Americans from extended pedigrees.
A genome-wide association study on lipoprotein (a) levels and coronary artery disease severity in a Chinese populationLipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a genetically determined risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which were mostly carried out in Caucasians, have identified many Lp(a)-associated SNPs. Here, we performed a GWAS on Lp(a) levels and further explored the relationships between Lp(a)-associated SNPs and CAD severity in 1,403 Han Chinese subjects. We observed that elevated Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with the increased synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score and the counts of heavily calcified lesions and long-range lesions (LRLs; P < 0.05), which are defined as lesions spanning >20 mm.
PCSK7 gene variation bridges atherogenic dyslipidemia with hepatic inflammation in NAFLD patientsDyslipidemia and altered iron metabolism are typical features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7 (PCSK7) gene variation has been associated with circulating lipids and liver damage during iron overload. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the PCSK7 rs236918 variant on NAFLD-related traits in 1,801 individuals from the Liver Biopsy Cohort (LBC), 500,000 from the UK Biobank Cohort (UKBBC), and 4,580 from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS).
Splice variant rs72613567 prevents worst histologic outcomes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseHydroxysteroid 17-#x03B2; dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) is a lipid droplet-associated protein; its gene-encoding variants affect the chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To estimate the effect of rs72613567, a splice variant with an adenine insertion (A-INS), on NAFLD susceptibility and severity, we performed a case-control study with 609 individuals. We investigated the effect of carrying the A-INS allele in 356 patients with biopsy-proven disease and explored the relationship between rs72613567 genotypes and the hepatic transcriptome.
Genome-wide association study identifies novel recessive genetic variants for high TGs in an Arab populationAbnormal blood lipid levels are influenced by genetic and lifestyle/dietary factors. Although many genetic variants associated with blood lipid traits have been identified in Europeans, similar data in Middle Eastern populations are limited. We performed a genome-wide association study with Arab individuals (discovery cohort: 1,353; replication cohort: 1,176) from Kuwait to identify possible associations of genetic variants with high lipid levels. We used Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip and candidate SNP genotyping in the discovery and replication phases, respectively.
An exome-wide sequencing study of lipid response to high-fat meal and fenofibrate in Caucasians from the GOLDN cohortOur understanding of genetic influences on the response of lipids to specific interventions is limited. In this study, we sought to elucidate effects of rare genetic variants on lipid response to a high-fat meal challenge and fenofibrate (FFB) therapy in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) cohort using an exome-wide sequencing-based association study. Our results showed that the rare coding variants in ITGA7, SIPA1L2, and CEP72 are significantly associated with fasting LDL cholesterol response to FFB (P = 1.24E-07), triglyceride postprandial area under the increase (AUI) (P = 2.31E-06), and triglyceride postprandial AUI response to FFB (P = 1.88E-06), respectively.
Macronutrient-specific effect of the MTNR1B genotype on lipid levels in response to 2 year weight-loss dietsCompelling evidence indicates that lipid metabolism is in partial control of the circadian system. In this context, it has been reported that the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) genetic variant influences the dynamics of melatonin secretion, which is involved in the circadian system as a chronobiotic. The objective was to analyze whether the MTNR1B rs10830963 genetic variant was related to changes in lipid levels in response to dietary interventions with different macronutrient distribution in 722 overweight/obese subjects from the POUNDS Lost trial.
LPA kringle IV type 2 is associated with type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population with very high cardiovascular riskThe connection between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and the risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes remains poorly understood. Lp(a) is encoded by the LPA gene, and evidence suggests that the kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) variant is particularly important to Lp(a) isoform size. A large isoform size, represented as a high number of KIV-2 repeats in LPA, is associated with low serum Lp(a) concentrations and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations among Lp(a) concentrations, LPA KIV-2 repeats, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population of 1,863 consecutive patients with very high cardiovascular risk, as identified by coronary angiography.
Polygenic determinants in extremes of high-density lipoprotein cholesterolHDL cholesterol (HDL-C) remains a superior biochemical predictor of CVD risk, but its genetic basis is incompletely defined. In patients with extreme HDL-C concentrations, we concurrently evaluated the contributions of multiple large- and small-effect genetic variants. In a discovery cohort of 255 unrelated lipid clinic patients with extreme HDL-C levels, we used a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to evaluate rare variants in known HDL metabolism genes, simultaneously with common variants bundled into a polygenic trait score.
LDL cholesterol level in fifth-grade schoolchildren associates with statureShort stature is associated with increased LDL-cholesterol levels and coronary artery disease in adults. We investigated the relationship of stature to LDL levels in children in the West Virginia Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities (CARDIAC) Project to determine whether the genetically determined inverse relationship observed in adults would be evident in fifth graders. A cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren was assessed for cardiovascular risk factors. Data collected at school screenings over 18 years in WV schools were analyzed for 63,152 fifth-graders to determine relationship of LDL to stature with consideration of age, gender, and BMI.
Identification and characterization of a novel DGAT1 missense mutation associated with congenital diarrheaAcyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 and DGAT2 catalyze triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis in humans. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in human DGAT1 result in severe congenital diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of DGAT1 led to dose-related diarrhea in human clinical trials. Here we identify a previously unknown DGAT1 mutation in identical twins of South Asian descent. These male patients developed watery diarrhea shortly after birth, with protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive.
Discovery and fine-mapping of loci associated with MUFAs through trans-ethnic meta-analysis in Chinese and European populationsMUFAs are unsaturated FAs with one double bond and are derived from endogenous synthesis and dietary intake. Accumulating evidence has suggested that plasma and erythrocyte MUFA levels are associated with cardiometabolic disorders, including CVD, T2D, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified seven loci for plasma and erythrocyte palmitoleic and oleic acid levels in populations of European origin. To identify additional MUFA-associated loci and the potential functional variant at each locus, we performed ethnic-specific GWAS meta-analyses and trans-ethnic meta-analyses in more than 15,000 participants of Chinese and European ancestry.
Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate with CD36 SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduce CD36Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). Five promoter variants associated with CMs, four with delayed TG clearance and five with LDL particle number.
Associations of genetic variants for adult lipid levels with lipid levels in children. The Generation R StudyLipid concentrations are heritable traits. Recently, the number of known genetic loci associated with lipid levels in adults increased from 95 to 157. The effects of these 157 loci have not been tested in children. Considering that lipid levels track from childhood to adulthood, we studied to determine whether these variants already affected lipid concentrations in a large group of 2,645 children with a median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7–7.3 years) from the population-based Generation R Study.
Targeted next-generation sequencing to diagnose disorders of HDL cholesterolA low level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is a common clinical scenario and an important marker for increased cardiovascular risk. Many patients with very low or very high HDL-C have a rare mutation in one of several genes, but identification of the molecular abnormality in patients with extreme HDL-C is rarely performed in clinical practice. We investigated the accuracy and diagnostic yield of a targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for extreme levels of HDL-C. We developed a targeted NGS panel to capture the exons, intron/exon boundaries, and untranslated regions of 26 genes with highly penetrant effects on plasma lipid levels.
Genetic meta-analysis of 15,901 African Americans identifies variation in EXOC3L1 is associated with HDL concentrationMeta-analyses of European populations has successfully identified genetic variants in over 150 loci associated with lipid levels, but results from additional ethnicities remain limited. Previously, we reported two novel lipid loci identified in a sample of 7,657 African Americans using a gene-centric array including 50,000 SNPs in 2,100 candidate genes. Initial discovery and follow-up of signals with P < 10−5 in additional African American samples confirmed CD36 and ICAM1. Using an additional 8,244 African American female samples from the Women's Health Initiative SNP Health Association Resource genome-wide association study dataset, we further examined the previous meta-analyses results by attempting to replicate 20 additional putative lipid signals with P < 10−4.