JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Hexacosenoyl-CoA is the most abundant very long-chain acyl-CoA in ATP binding cassette transporter D1-deficient cellsX-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder caused by deleterious mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The ABCD1 protein transports very long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) from the cytosol into the peroxisome where the VLCFAs are degraded through β-oxidation. ABCD1 dysfunction leads to VLCFA accumulation in individuals with X-ALD. FAs are activated by esterification to CoA before metabolic utilization. However, the intracellular pools and metabolic profiles of individual acyl-CoA esters have not been fully analyzed.
New evidence from plasma ceramides links apoE polymorphism to greater risk of coronary artery disease in Finnish adultsapoE, a key regulator of plasma lipids, mediates altered functionalities in lipoprotein metabolism and thus affects the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The significance of different apoE polymorphisms remains unclear; although the ε4 allele is clearly associated with increased cholesterol levels (which inform CAD risk), direct studies about apoE polymorphisms on CAD risk and development have yielded controversial results. Furthermore, certain species of ceramides—complex lipids abundant in plasma LDL—are markers of increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death.
Rare DEGS1 variant significantly alters de novo ceramide synthesis pathwayThe de novo ceramide synthesis pathway is essential to human biology and health, but genetic influences remain unexplored. The core function of this pathway is the generation of biologically active ceramide from its precursor, dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramides have diverse, often protective, biological roles; conversely, increased ceramide levels are biomarkers of complex disease. To explore the genetics of the ceramide synthesis pathway, we searched for deleterious nonsynonymous variants in the genomes of 1,020 Mexican Americans from extended pedigrees.
Quantitative determination of esterified eicosanoids and related oxygenated metabolites after base hydrolysisEicosanoids and related metabolites (oxylipins) possess potent signaling properties, elicit numerous important physiologic responses, and serve as biomarkers of disease. In addition to their presence in free form, a considerable portion of these bioactive lipids is esterified to complex lipids in cell membranes and plasma lipoproteins. We developed a rapid and sensitive method for the analysis of esterified oxylipins using alkaline hydrolysis to release them followed by ultra-performance LC coupled with mass spectrometric analysis.
Postprandial bile acid levels in intestine and plasma reveal altered biliary circulation in chronic pancreatitis patientsBile acid (BA) secretion and circulation in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) were investigated by simultaneously measuring postprandial levels of individual BAs in duodenal contents and blood plasma using LC-MS/MS. CP patients and healthy volunteers (HVs) were intubated with gastric and duodenal tubes prior to the administration of a test meal and continuous aspiration of duodenal contents. Pancreatic lipase outputs in CP patients were very low (0.7 ± 0.2 mg) versus HVs (116.7 ± 68.1 mg; P < 0.005), thus confirming the severity of EPI.
Mitochondrial dysfunction-related lipid changes occur in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progressionNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises fat-accumulating conditions within hepatocytes that can cause severe liver damage and metabolic comorbidities. Studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to its development and progression and that the hepatic lipidome changes extensively in obesity and in NAFLD. To gain insight into the relationship between lipid metabolism and disease progression through different stages of NAFLD, we performed lipidomic analysis of plasma and liver biopsy samples from obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and from those without NAFLD.
Plasma concentrations of molecular lipid species predict long-term clinical outcome in coronary artery disease patientsWe investigated the associations of ten previously identified high risk molecular lipid species and three ceramide ratios with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) during a median follow-up of 4.7 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Between 2008 and 2011, 581 patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina pectoris (SAP) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Blood was drawn prior to the index procedure and lipid species were determined.
Omega-6 oxylipins generated by soluble epoxide hydrolase are associated with knee osteoarthritisOmega-6 FAs are inflammatory mediators that are increased in joints with osteoarthritis (OA), but their association with OA progression is not yet well defined. To investigate the relationship between omega-6 FAs and knee OA, we measured with LC-MS the levels of 22 omega-6 lipids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and 20 oxylipins) in synovial fluid (SF) from 112 knees of 102 individuals (58 with knee OA; 44 controls). We hypothesized that oxylipin metabolites would increase in OA knee SF and with radiographically progressive disease.
Aspirin alone and combined with a statin suppresses eicosanoid formation in human colon tissueEicosanoids, including prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes, are broadly bioactive lipid mediators and increase colon tumorigenesis possibly through chronic inflammatory mechanisms. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) helps prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), possibly through cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated suppression of eicosanoid, particularly PGE2, formation. Recent studies suggest that statins prevent CRC and improve survival after diagnosis. We identified patients on ASA and/or statin treatment undergoing routine colonoscopy and measured eicosanoid levels in colonic mucosa with targeted metabolomics technology (LC-MS/MS).
Clinical chorioamnionitis at term: the amniotic fluid fatty acyl lipidomeClinical chorioamnionitis at term (TCC) is the most common obstetrical infliction diagnosed in labor and delivery units worldwide and is associated with a substantial increase in maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. This obstetrical complication is a heterogeneous condition, as only half of patients have detectable microorganisms in the amniotic cavity. Because bioactive lipids play a key role in the initiation and resolution of an inflammatory response, we aimed to characterize the amniotic fluid lipidome in patients with TCC.
Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in menOur objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35–55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose.
Statin action enriches HDL3 in polyunsaturated phospholipids and plasmalogens and reduces LDL-derived phospholipid hydroperoxides in atherogenic mixed dyslipidemiaAtherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) in MetS is indeterminate. Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma TGs (−41%) and LDL-cholesterol (−38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI.
Plasma fatty acids, oxylipins, and risk of myocardial infarction: the Singapore Chinese Health StudyWe aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma FAs, oxylipins, and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Singapore Chinese population. A nested case-control study with 744 incident AMI cases and 744 matched controls aged 47–83 years was conducted within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Nineteen plasma FAs and 12 oxylipins were quantified using MS. These were grouped into 12 FA clusters and 5 oxylipin clusters using hierarchical clustering, and their associations with AMI risk were assessed.
Detection and confirmation of serum lipid biomarkers for preeclampsia using direct infusion mass spectrometryDespite substantial research, the early diagnosis of preeclampsia remains elusive. Lipids are now recognized to be involved in regulation and pathophysiology of some disease. Shotgun lipidomic studies were undertaken to determine whether serum lipid biomarkers exist that predict preeclampsia later in the same in pregnancy. A discovery study was performed using sera collected at 12–14 weeks pregnancy from 27 controls with uncomplicated pregnancies and 29 cases that later developed preeclampsia. Lipids were extracted and analyzed by direct infusion into a TOF mass spectrometer.
Statin action favors normalization of the plasma lipidome in the atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia of MetS: potential relevance to statin-associated dysglycemiaThe impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (−41%), remnant cholesterol (−55%), and LDL-cholesterol (−39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%).