JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
LDL-C calculated by Friedewald, Martin-Hopkins, or NIH equation 2 versus beta-quantification: pooled alirocumab trialsAccurate assessment of LDL-C levels is important, as they are often used for treatment recommendations. For many years, plasma LDL-C levels were calculated using the Friedewald equation, but there are limitations to this method compared with direct measurement via beta-quantification (BQ). Here, we assessed differences between the Friedewald, Martin-Hopkins, and NIH equation 2 methods of calculating LDL-C and the “gold standard” BQ method using pooled phase 3 data with alirocumab. All randomized patients were included irrespective of the treatment arm (n = 6,122).
Perioperative high density lipoproteins, oxidative stress, and kidney injury after cardiac surgeryOxidative stress promotes acute kidney injury (AKI). Higher HDL cholesterol concentrations are associated with less AKI. To test the hypothesis that HDL antioxidant activity is associated with AKI after cardiac surgery, we quantified HDL particle (HDL-P) size and number, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity, and isofuran concentrations in 75 patients who developed AKI and 75 matched control patients. Higher preoperative HDL-P was associated with less AKI (OR: 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71–0.91; P = 0.001), higher PON-1 activity ( P < 0.001), and lower plasma concentrations of isofurans immediately after surgery (P = 0.02).
Does pregnancy alter life-course lipid trajectories? Evidence from the HUNT Study in NorwayWe examined the association between pregnancy and life-course lipid trajectories. Linked data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway yielded 19,987 parous and 1,625 nulliparous women. Using mixed-effects spline models, we estimated differences in nonfasting lipid levels from before to after first birth in parous women and between parous and nulliparous women. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) dropped by −4.2 mg/dl (95% CI: −5.0, −3.3) from before to after first birth in adjusted models, a 7% change, and the total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio increased by 0.18 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.25), with no change in non-HDL-C or triglycerides.
Global genetic diversity of human apolipoproteins and effects on cardiovascular disease riskAbnormal plasma apolipoprotein levels are consistently implicated in CVD risk. Although 30% to 60% of their interindividual variability is genetic, common genetic variants explain only 10% to 20% of these differences. Rare genetic variants may be major sources of the missing heritability, yet quantitative evaluations of their contribution to phenotypic variability are lacking. Here, we analyzed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing data from 138,632 individuals across seven major human populations to present a systematic overview of genetic apolipoprotein variability.
An exome-wide sequencing study of lipid response to high-fat meal and fenofibrate in Caucasians from the GOLDN cohortOur understanding of genetic influences on the response of lipids to specific interventions is limited. In this study, we sought to elucidate effects of rare genetic variants on lipid response to a high-fat meal challenge and fenofibrate (FFB) therapy in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) cohort using an exome-wide sequencing-based association study. Our results showed that the rare coding variants in ITGA7, SIPA1L2, and CEP72 are significantly associated with fasting LDL cholesterol response to FFB (P = 1.24E-07), triglyceride postprandial area under the increase (AUI) (P = 2.31E-06), and triglyceride postprandial AUI response to FFB (P = 1.88E-06), respectively.
Macronutrient-specific effect of the MTNR1B genotype on lipid levels in response to 2 year weight-loss dietsCompelling evidence indicates that lipid metabolism is in partial control of the circadian system. In this context, it has been reported that the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) genetic variant influences the dynamics of melatonin secretion, which is involved in the circadian system as a chronobiotic. The objective was to analyze whether the MTNR1B rs10830963 genetic variant was related to changes in lipid levels in response to dietary interventions with different macronutrient distribution in 722 overweight/obese subjects from the POUNDS Lost trial.
Effect of adding bezafibrate to standard lipid-lowering therapy on post-fat load lipid levels in patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover trialFamilial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) is a genetic disorder associated with impaired postprandial lipid clearance. The effect of adding bezafibrate to standard lipid-lowering therapy on postprandial and fasting lipid levels in patients with FD is unknown. In this randomized placebo-controlled double-blind crossover trial, 15 patients with FD received bezafibrate and placebo for 6 weeks in randomized order in addition to standard lipid-lowering therapy (statin, ezetimibe, and/or lifestyle). We assessed post-fat load lipids, expressed as incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and area under the curve (AUC), as well as fasting levels and safety, and found that adding bezafibrate did not reduce post-fat load non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) iAUC (1.78 ± 4.49 mmol·h/l vs.
TM6SF2 rs58542926 variant affects postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis in NAFLDMechanisms underlying the opposite effects of transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) rs58542926 C>T polymorphism on liver injury and cardiometabolic risk in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unclear. We assessed the impact of this polymorphism on postprandial lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and nutrient oxidation in NAFLD. Sixty nonobese nondiabetic normolipidemic biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 60 matched controls genotyped for TM6SF2 C>T polymorphism underwent: indirect calorimetry; an oral fat tolerance test with measurement of plasma lipoprotein subfractions, adipokines, and incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis of glucose homeostasis.
Associations of genetic variants for adult lipid levels with lipid levels in children. The Generation R StudyLipid concentrations are heritable traits. Recently, the number of known genetic loci associated with lipid levels in adults increased from 95 to 157. The effects of these 157 loci have not been tested in children. Considering that lipid levels track from childhood to adulthood, we studied to determine whether these variants already affected lipid concentrations in a large group of 2,645 children with a median age of 6.0 years (95% range 5.7–7.3 years) from the population-based Generation R Study.
Global molecular analysis and APOE mutations in a cohort of autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia patients in FranceAutosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) is a human disorder characterized phenotypically by isolated high-cholesterol levels. Mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), APOB, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) genes are well known to be associated with the disease. To characterize the genetic background associated with ADH in France, the three ADH-associated genes were sequenced in a cohort of 120 children and 109 adult patients. Fifty-one percent of the cohort had a possible deleterious variant in LDLR, 3.1% in APOB, and 1.7% in PCSK9.
Statin action favors normalization of the plasma lipidome in the atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia of MetS: potential relevance to statin-associated dysglycemiaThe impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (−41%), remnant cholesterol (−55%), and LDL-cholesterol (−39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%).
Enhancement of lipid peroxidation and its amelioration by vitamin E in a subject with mutations in the SBP2 geneSelenocysteine (Sec) insertion sequence-binding protein 2 (SBP2) is essential for the biosynthesis of Sec-containing proteins, termed selenoproteins. Subjects with mutations in the SBP2 gene have decreased levels of several selenoproteins, resulting in a complex phenotype. Selenoproteins play a significant role in antioxidative defense, and deficiencies in these proteins can lead to increased oxidative stress. However, lipid peroxidation and the effects of antioxidants in subjects with SBP2 gene mutations have not been studied.
Protective associations of HDL with blood-brain barrier injury in multiple sclerosis patientsThe purpose of this work was to investigate the associations of serum cholesterol and apolipoproteins with measures of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and CNS inflammation following the first clinical demyelinating event. This study included 154 patients [67% female; age, 29.5 ± 8.2 years (mean ± SD)] enrolled in a multi-center study of interferon β1-a treatment following the first demyelinating event. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained at screening prior to treatment. A comprehensive serum lipid profile and multiple surrogate markers of BBB breakdown and CNS immune activity were obtained.
Levels of atherogenic lipoproteins are unexpectedly reduced in interstitial fluid from type 2 diabetes patientsAt a given level of serum cholesterol, patients with T2D have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis compared with nondiabetic subjects. We hypothesized that T2D patients have an increased interstitial fluid (IF)-to-serum gradient ratio for LDL, due to leakage over the vascular wall. Therefore, lipoprotein profiles in serum and IF from 35 T2D patients and 35 healthy controls were assayed using fast performance liquid chromatography. The IF-to-serum gradients for VLDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as for apoB, were clearly reduced in T2D patients compared with healthy controls.
Lipidomic changes of LDL in overweight and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects taking phytosterol- and omega-3-supplemented milkThe benefits of dietary phytosterols (PhySs) and long-chain n-3 PUFA (ω3) have been linked to their effects as cholesterol- and triglyceride (TGL)-lowering agents. However, it remains unknown whether these compounds have further metabolic effects on LDL lipid composition. Here, we studied the effects of PhyS- or ω3-supplemented low-fat milk (milk) on the LDL-lipidome. Overweight and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects (n = 32) were enrolled in a two-arm longitudinal crossover study. Milk (250 ml/day), enriched with either 1.57 g PhyS or 375 mg ω3 (EPA + DHA), was given to the participants during two sequential 28 day intervention periods.