JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Elevated lipoprotein(a) as a predictor for coronary events in older menElevated circulating lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is associated with an increased risk of first and recurrent cardiovascular events; however, the effect of baseline Lp(a) levels on long-term outcomes in an elderly population is not well understood. The current single-center prospective study evaluated the association of Lp(a) levels with incident acute coronary syndrome to identify populations at risk of future events. Lp(a) concentration was assessed in 755 individuals (mean age of 71.9 years) within the community and followed for up to 8 years (median time to event, 4.5 years; interquartile range, 2.5–6.5 years).
Genetic and secondary causes of severe HDL deficiency and cardiovascular diseaseWe assessed secondary and genetic causes of severe HDL deficiency in 258,252 subjects, of whom 370 men (0.33%) and 144 women (0.099%) had HDL cholesterol levels <20 mg/dl. We excluded 206 subjects (40.1%) with significant elevations of triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, or liver enzymes and men receiving testosterone. We sequenced 23 lipid-related genes in 201 (65.3%) of 308 eligible subjects. Mutations (23 novel) and selected variants were found at the following gene loci: 1) ABCA1 (26.9%): 2 homozygotes, 7 compound or double heterozygotes, 30 heterozygotes, and 2 homozygotes and 13 heterozygotes with variants rs9282541/p.R230C or rs111292742/c.-279C>G; 2) LCAT (12.4%): 1 homozygote, 3 compound heterozygotes, 13 heterozygotes, and 8 heterozygotes with variant rs4986970/p.S232T; 3) APOA1 (5.0%): 1 homozygote and 9 heterozygotes; and 4) LPL (4.5%): 1 heterozygote and 8 heterozygotes with variant rs268/p.N318S.
Large-scale deletions of the ABCA1 gene in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemiaCopy-number variations (CNVs) have been studied in the context of familial hypercholesterolemia but have not yet been evaluated in patients with extreme levels of HDL cholesterol. We evaluated targeted, next-generation sequencing data from patients with very low levels of HDL cholesterol (i.e., hypoalphalipoproteinemia) with the VarSeq-CNV® caller algorithm to screen for CNVs that disrupted the ABCA1, LCAT, or APOA1 genes. In four individuals, we found three unique deletions in ABCA1: a heterozygous deletion of exon 4, a heterozygous deletion that spanned exons 8 to 31, and a heterozygous deletion of the entire ABCA1 gene.