JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Four nights of sleep restriction suppress the postprandial lipemic response and decrease satietyChronic sleep restriction, or inadequate sleep, is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Laboratory studies demonstrate that sleep restriction causes impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. Evidence suggests that inadequate sleep also impairs adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and the NEFA rebound during intravenous glucose tolerance tests, yet no studies have examined the effects of sleep restriction on high-fat meal lipemia. We assessed the effect of 5 h time in bed (TIB) per night for four consecutive nights on postprandial lipemia following a standardized high-fat dinner (HFD).
Metabolomic correlates of central adiposity and earlier-life body mass indexBMI is correlated with circulating metabolites, but few studies discuss other adiposity measures, and little is known about metabolomic correlates of BMI from early life. We investigated associations between different adiposity measures, BMI from childhood through adulthood, and metabolites quantified from serum using 1H NMR spectroscopy in 900 British men and women aged 60–64. We assessed BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AGR), and BMI from childhood through adulthood.
DHA intake interacts with ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 genetic variants to influence polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milkEndogenous synthesis of PUFAs is mediated by genes controlling fatty acid elongases 2 and 5 (ELOVL2 and ELOVL5) and by exogenous DHA intake. Associations between elongases and PUFA levels probably involve genetic variants of ELOVL and changes in DHA intake, but data about their combined effect on PUFA levels are sparse. We hypothesized that each factor would directly affect PUFAs and that interactions between haplotypes and DHA intake would influence PUFAs. We explored four levels of DHA intake in pregnant Chinese Han women and 10 SNPs in the ELOVL genes to determine associations with PUFAs in breast milk.
Differential effects of EPA versus DHA on postprandial vascular function and the plasma oxylipin profile in menOur objective was to investigate the impact of EPA versus DHA on arterial stiffness and reactivity and underlying mechanisms (with a focus on plasma oxylipins) in the postprandial state. In a three-arm crossover acute test meal trial, men (n = 26, 35–55 years) at increased CVD risk received a high-fat (42.4 g) test meal providing 4.16 g of EPA or DHA or control oil in random order. At 0 h and 4 h, blood samples were collected to quantify plasma fatty acids, long chain n-3 PUFA-derived oxylipins, nitrite and hydrogen sulfide, and serum lipids and glucose.
Plasma fatty acids, oxylipins, and risk of myocardial infarction: the Singapore Chinese Health StudyWe aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma FAs, oxylipins, and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Singapore Chinese population. A nested case-control study with 744 incident AMI cases and 744 matched controls aged 47–83 years was conducted within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Nineteen plasma FAs and 12 oxylipins were quantified using MS. These were grouped into 12 FA clusters and 5 oxylipin clusters using hierarchical clustering, and their associations with AMI risk were assessed.
Associations of human retinal very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with dietary lipid biomarkersThe human retina is well-known to have unique lipid profiles enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) and very long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLC-PUFAs) that appear to promote normal retinal structure and function, but the influence of diet on retinal lipid profiles in health and disease remains controversial. In this study, we examined two independent cohorts of donor eyes and related their retinal lipid profiles with systemic biomarkers of lipid intake. We found that serum and red blood cell lipids, and to a lesser extent orbital fat, are indeed excellent biomarkers of retinal lipid content and n-3/n-6 ratios in both the LC-PUFA and VLC-PUFA series.
Increased palmitate intake: higher acylcarnitine concentrations without impaired progression of β-oxidationPalmitic acid (PA) is associated with higher blood concentrations of medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCACs), and we hypothesized that PA may inhibit progression of FA β-oxidation. Using a cross-over design, 17 adults were fed high PA (HPA) and low PA/high oleic acid (HOA) diets, each for 3 weeks. The [1-13C]PA and [13-13C]PA tracers were administered with food in random order with each diet, and we assessed PA oxidation (PA OX) and serum AC concentration to determine whether a higher PA intake promoted incomplete PA OX.
Effects of n-3 FA supplementation on the release of proresolving lipid mediators by blood mononuclear cells: the OmegAD studySpecialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) induce resolution of inflammation. SPMs are derivatives of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and may mediate their beneficial effects. It is unknown whether supplementation with PUFAs influences the production of SPMs. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with brain inflammation and reduced levels of SPMs. The OmegAD study is a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial on AD patients, in which placebo or a supplement of 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA was taken daily for 6 months.