JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular risk: a cautionary note about metabolic confoundingTriglycerides are the conventional tool to measure VLDLs, whereas LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is the conventional tool to measure LDLs. Multiple epidemiological studies, including a series of genetically based analyses, have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is related to triglycerides independently of LDL-C, and this has led to a series of new therapeutic agents designed specifically to reduce plasma triglycerides. The triglyceride hypothesis posits that increased levels of triglycerides increase cardiovascular risk and decreasing plasma triglycerides decreases cardiovascular risk.
Disialylated apolipoprotein C-III proteoform is associated with improved lipids in prediabetes and type 2 diabetesThe apoC-III proteoform containing two sialic acid residues (apoC-III2) has different in vitro effects on lipid metabolism compared with asialylated (apoC-III0) or the most abundant monosialylated (apoC-III1) proteoforms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma apoC-III proteoforms (by mass spectrometric immunoassay) and plasma lipids were tested in two randomized clinical trials: ACT NOW, a study of pioglitazone in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 531), and RACED (n = 296), a study of intensive glycemic control and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients.
Levels of atherogenic lipoproteins are unexpectedly reduced in interstitial fluid from type 2 diabetes patientsAt a given level of serum cholesterol, patients with T2D have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis compared with nondiabetic subjects. We hypothesized that T2D patients have an increased interstitial fluid (IF)-to-serum gradient ratio for LDL, due to leakage over the vascular wall. Therefore, lipoprotein profiles in serum and IF from 35 T2D patients and 35 healthy controls were assayed using fast performance liquid chromatography. The IF-to-serum gradients for VLDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as for apoB, were clearly reduced in T2D patients compared with healthy controls.