JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Plasma apoM and S1P levels are inversely associated with mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitusapoM is a minor HDL apolipoprotein and carrier for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). HDL apoM and S1P concentrations are inversely associated with atherosclerosis progression in rodents. We evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of S1P, plasma concentrations of apoM, and HDL apoM levels with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants (N = 545). Associations between plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM with subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality were assessed using multivariate parametric, nonparametric, and Cox proportional hazards models.
n-3 PUFAs improve erythrocyte fatty acid profile in patients with small AAA: a randomized controlled trialAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of death in older adults, which has no current drug therapy. Inflammation and abnormal redox status are believed to be key pathogenic mechanisms for AAA. In light of evidence correlating inflammation with aberrant fatty acid profiles, this study compared erythrocyte fatty acid content in 43 AAA patients (diameter 3.0–4.5 cm) and 52 healthy controls. In addition, the effect of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on erythrocyte fatty acid content was examined in a cohort of 30 AAA patients as part of a 12 week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
DHA intake interacts with ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 genetic variants to influence polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milkEndogenous synthesis of PUFAs is mediated by genes controlling fatty acid elongases 2 and 5 (ELOVL2 and ELOVL5) and by exogenous DHA intake. Associations between elongases and PUFA levels probably involve genetic variants of ELOVL and changes in DHA intake, but data about their combined effect on PUFA levels are sparse. We hypothesized that each factor would directly affect PUFAs and that interactions between haplotypes and DHA intake would influence PUFAs. We explored four levels of DHA intake in pregnant Chinese Han women and 10 SNPs in the ELOVL genes to determine associations with PUFAs in breast milk.
Effect of antiretroviral therapy on allele-associated Lp(a) level in women with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV StudyWe previously demonstrated an association between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on Lp(a) levels in relation to apo(a) size polymorphism remain unclear. ART effects on allele-specific apo(a) level (ASL), an Lp(a) level associated with individual apo(a) alleles within each allele-pair, were determined in 126 HIV-seropositive women. ART effects were tested by a mixed-effects model across pre-ART and post-ART first and third visits.
Racial differences in in vivo adipose lipid kinetics in humansThe storage of lipids in the form of triglycerides (TGs) and the de novo synthesis (lipogenesis) of fatty acids from nonlipid precursors [de novo lipogenesis (DNL)] are important functions of adipose tissue (AT) that influence whole-body metabolism. Yet, few studies have reported in vivo estimates of adipose lipid kinetics in humans. Fifty-two women with obesity (27 African-American and 25 Caucasian; 29.7 ± 5.5 years; BMI 32.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 44.3 ± 4.0% body fat) were enrolled in the study. In vivo synthesis (or replacement) of TGs (fTG) as well as the synthesis of the fatty acid, palmitate [a measure of adipose DNL (fDNL)], were assessed using an 8 week incorporation of deuterium into lipids (glycerol and palmitate moieties of TGs) in subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and subcutaneous femoral (scFEM) AT.
Obstructive sleep apnea and effects of continuous positive airway pressure on triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolismThis study aimed to explore lipoprotein metabolism in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We studied 15 men with severe OSA [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥30 events/hour] and 12 age-, BMI-, and waist circumference-matched volunteers without OSA (AHI <5 events/hour). Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was determined by a blind examiner. After 12 h fasting, a triglyceride-rich chylomicron-like emulsion, labeled with [14C]cholesteryl oleate and [3H]triolein, was injected intravenously followed by blood sample collection at preestablished times.
High density lipoproteins and type 2 inflammatory biomarkers are negatively correlated in atopic asthmaticsBlood eosinophil counts and serum periostin levels are biomarkers of type 2 inflammation. Although serum levels of HDL and apoA-I have been associated with less severe airflow obstruction in asthma, it is not known whether serum lipids or lipoprotein particles are correlated with type 2 inflammation in asthmatics. Here, we assessed whether serum lipids and lipoproteins correlated with blood eosinophil counts or serum periostin levels in 165 atopic asthmatics and 163 nonasthmatic subjects with and without atopy.
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivorsSurvivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children, are at increased risk of developing late cardiometabolic conditions. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma lipid profile, Apo distribution, and lipoprotein composition of 80 childhood ALL survivors compared with 22 healthy controls. Our results show that, despite their young age, 50% of the ALL survivors displayed dyslipidemia, characterized by increased plasma triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol, as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol.
Prognostic roles of tetrahydroxy bile acids in infantile intrahepatic cholestasisTetrahydroxy bile acids (THBAs) are hydrophilic and are present at minimal or undetectable levels in healthy human adults, but are present at high levels in bile salt export pump (abcb11)-knockout mice. The roles of THBAs in human cholestatic diseases are unclear. We aimed to investigate the presence of THBAs in patients with infantile intrahepatic cholestasis and its correlation with outcome. Urinary bile acids (BAs) were analyzed by GC-MS. Data were compared between good (n = 21) (disease-free before 1 year old) and poor prognosis groups (n = 19).