JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Plasma ceramides containing saturated fatty acids are associated with risk of type 2 diabetesRecent studies suggest that the type of saturated fatty acid bound to sphingolipids influences the biological activity of those sphingolipids. However, it is unknown whether associations of sphingolipids with diabetes may differ by the identity of bound lipid species. Here, we investigated associations of 15 ceramide (Cer) and SM species (i.e., all sphingolipids, measured with coefficient of variation less than 20%) with incident type 2 diabetes in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 3,645), a large cohort study of cardiovascular disease among elderly adults who were followed from 1989 to 2015.
Genome-wide association study identifies novel recessive genetic variants for high TGs in an Arab populationAbnormal blood lipid levels are influenced by genetic and lifestyle/dietary factors. Although many genetic variants associated with blood lipid traits have been identified in Europeans, similar data in Middle Eastern populations are limited. We performed a genome-wide association study with Arab individuals (discovery cohort: 1,353; replication cohort: 1,176) from Kuwait to identify possible associations of genetic variants with high lipid levels. We used Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip and candidate SNP genotyping in the discovery and replication phases, respectively.
Obesity is associated with an altered HDL subspecies profile among adolescents with metabolic diseaseWe aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the depletion of large HDL particles and enrichment of small HDL particles observed in adolescents with T2D. Four groups of adolescents were recruited: 1) lean insulin-sensitive (L-IS), normal BMI and no insulin resistance; 2) lean insulin-resistant (L-IR), normal BMI but insulin resistance (fasting insulin levels ≥ 25 mU/ml and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ≥ 6); 3) obese insulin-sensitive (O-IS), BMI ≥ 95th percentile and no insulin resistance; and 4) obese insulin-resistant (O-IR), BMI ≥ 95th percentile and insulin resistance.
Glucagon receptor antagonism induces increased cholesterol absorptionGlucagon and insulin have opposing action in governing glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), plasma glucagon is characteristically elevated, contributing to increased gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Therefore, glucagon receptor (GCGR) antagonism has been proposed as a pharmacologic approach to treat T2DM. In support of this concept, a potent small-molecule GCGR antagonist (GRA), MK-0893, demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy to reduce hyperglycemia, with an HbA1c reduction of 1.5% at the 80 mg dose for 12 weeks in T2DM.
A novel truncated form of apolipoprotein A-I transported by dense LDL is increased in diabetic patientsDiabetic (DM) patients have exacerbated atherosclerosis and high CVD burden. Changes in lipid metabolism, lipoprotein structure, and dysfunctional HDL are characteristics of diabetes. Our aim was to investigate whether serum ApoA-I, the main protein in HDL, was biochemically modified in DM patients. By using proteomic technologies, we have identified a 26 kDa ApoA-I form in serum. MS analysis revealed this 26 kDa form as a novel truncated variant lacking amino acids 1-38, ApoA-IΔ(1-38). DM patients show a 2-fold increase in ApoA-IΔ(1-38) over nondiabetic individuals.