JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Elevated lipoprotein(a) as a predictor for coronary events in older menElevated circulating lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is associated with an increased risk of first and recurrent cardiovascular events; however, the effect of baseline Lp(a) levels on long-term outcomes in an elderly population is not well understood. The current single-center prospective study evaluated the association of Lp(a) levels with incident acute coronary syndrome to identify populations at risk of future events. Lp(a) concentration was assessed in 755 individuals (mean age of 71.9 years) within the community and followed for up to 8 years (median time to event, 4.5 years; interquartile range, 2.5–6.5 years).
Lipid and metabolic syndrome traits in coronary artery disease: a Mendelian randomization studyMendelian randomization (MR) of lipid traits in CAD has provided evidence for causal associations of LDL-C and TGs in CAD, but many lipid trait genetic variants have pleiotropic effects on other cardiovascular risk factors that may bias MR associations. The goal of this study was to evaluate pleiotropic effects of lipid trait genetic variants and to account for these effects in MR of lipid traits in CAD. We performed multivariable MR using inverse variance-weighted and MR-Egger methods in large (n ≥ 300,000) GWAS datasets.
Progression of chronic kidney disease in familial LCAT deficiency: a follow-up of the Italian cohortFamilial LCAT deficiency (FLD) is a rare genetic disorder of HDL metabolism, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the LCAT gene and characterized by a variety of symptoms including corneal opacities and kidney failure. Renal disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in FLD cases. However, the prognosis is not known and the rate of deterioration of kidney function is variable and unpredictable from patient to patient. In this article, we present data from a follow-up of the large Italian cohort of FLD patients, who have been followed for an average of 12 years.
Comparative quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of anti-PCSK9 therapeutic modalities in hypercholesterolemiaSince the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as an attractive target in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, multiple anti-PCSK9 therapeutic modalities have been pursued in drug development. The objective of this research is to set the stage for the quantitative benchmarking of two anti-PCSK9 pharmacological modality classes, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). To this end, we developed an integrative mathematical model of lipoprotein homeostasis describing the dynamic interplay between PCSK9, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoB, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and triglycerides (TGs).
Effect of antiretroviral therapy on allele-associated Lp(a) level in women with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV StudyWe previously demonstrated an association between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on Lp(a) levels in relation to apo(a) size polymorphism remain unclear. ART effects on allele-specific apo(a) level (ASL), an Lp(a) level associated with individual apo(a) alleles within each allele-pair, were determined in 126 HIV-seropositive women. ART effects were tested by a mixed-effects model across pre-ART and post-ART first and third visits.
Cholesterol efflux capacity does not associate with coronary calcium, plaque vulnerability, and telomere length in healthy octogenariansSeveral studies have revealed that traditional risk factors are less effective in predicting CVD risk in the elderly, suggesting the need to identify new biomarkers. Here, we evaluated the association between serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an atheroprotective property of HDL recently identified as a novel marker of CVD risk, and atherosclerotic burden in a cohort of very old, healthy individuals. Serum CEC values were not significantly correlated either with calcium score or with markers of vulnerable plaque, such as positive remodeling, hypodensity, spotty calcification, or napking-ring sign.
LPA kringle IV type 2 is associated with type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population with very high cardiovascular riskThe connection between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and the risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes remains poorly understood. Lp(a) is encoded by the LPA gene, and evidence suggests that the kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) variant is particularly important to Lp(a) isoform size. A large isoform size, represented as a high number of KIV-2 repeats in LPA, is associated with low serum Lp(a) concentrations and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We investigated the associations among Lp(a) concentrations, LPA KIV-2 repeats, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population of 1,863 consecutive patients with very high cardiovascular risk, as identified by coronary angiography.
Plasma cholesterol homeostasis, HDL remodeling and function during the acute phase reactionAcute phase reaction (APR) is a systemic inflammation triggered by several conditions associated with lipid profile alterations. We evaluated whether APR also associates with changes in cholesterol synthesis and absorption, HDL structure, composition, and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). We analyzed 59 subjects with APR related to infections, oncologic causes, or autoimmune diseases and 39 controls. We detected no difference in markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Conversely, a significant reduction of LpA-I- and LpAI:AII-containing HDL (−28% and −44.8%, respectively) and of medium-sized HDL (−10.5%) occurred in APR.
Epigenome-wide association study of triglyceride postprandial responses to a high-fat dietary challengePostprandial lipemia (PPL), the increased plasma TG concentration after consuming a high-fat meal, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Individual responses to a meal high in fat vary greatly, depending on genetic and lifestyle factors. However, only a few loci have been associated with TG-PPL response. Heritable epigenomic changes may be significant contributors to the unexplained inter-individual PPL variability. We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 979 subjects with DNA methylation measured from CD4+ T cells, who were challenged with a high-fat meal as a part of the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study.
Higher chylomicron remnants and LDL particle numbers associate with CD36 SNPs and DNA methylation sites that reduce CD36Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). Five promoter variants associated with CMs, four with delayed TG clearance and five with LDL particle number.
Disialylated apolipoprotein C-III proteoform is associated with improved lipids in prediabetes and type 2 diabetesThe apoC-III proteoform containing two sialic acid residues (apoC-III2) has different in vitro effects on lipid metabolism compared with asialylated (apoC-III0) or the most abundant monosialylated (apoC-III1) proteoforms. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma apoC-III proteoforms (by mass spectrometric immunoassay) and plasma lipids were tested in two randomized clinical trials: ACT NOW, a study of pioglitazone in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (n = 531), and RACED (n = 296), a study of intensive glycemic control and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes patients.
HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange is independently associated with cholesterol efflux capacityHDL is the primary mediator of cholesterol mobilization from the periphery to the liver via reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). A critical first step in this process is the uptake of cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages by HDL, a function of HDL inversely associated with prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the dynamic ability of HDL to undergo remodeling and exchange of apoA-I is an important and potentially rate-limiting aspect of RCT. In this study, we investigated the relationship between HDL-apoA-I exchange (HAE) and serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) efflux capacity.