JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
Elevated lipoprotein(a) as a predictor for coronary events in older menElevated circulating lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is associated with an increased risk of first and recurrent cardiovascular events; however, the effect of baseline Lp(a) levels on long-term outcomes in an elderly population is not well understood. The current single-center prospective study evaluated the association of Lp(a) levels with incident acute coronary syndrome to identify populations at risk of future events. Lp(a) concentration was assessed in 755 individuals (mean age of 71.9 years) within the community and followed for up to 8 years (median time to event, 4.5 years; interquartile range, 2.5–6.5 years).
LDL-C calculated by Friedewald, Martin-Hopkins, or NIH equation 2 versus beta-quantification: pooled alirocumab trialsAccurate assessment of LDL-C levels is important, as they are often used for treatment recommendations. For many years, plasma LDL-C levels were calculated using the Friedewald equation, but there are limitations to this method compared with direct measurement via beta-quantification (BQ). Here, we assessed differences between the Friedewald, Martin-Hopkins, and NIH equation 2 methods of calculating LDL-C and the “gold standard” BQ method using pooled phase 3 data with alirocumab. All randomized patients were included irrespective of the treatment arm (n = 6,122).
Perioperative high density lipoproteins, oxidative stress, and kidney injury after cardiac surgeryOxidative stress promotes acute kidney injury (AKI). Higher HDL cholesterol concentrations are associated with less AKI. To test the hypothesis that HDL antioxidant activity is associated with AKI after cardiac surgery, we quantified HDL particle (HDL-P) size and number, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity, and isofuran concentrations in 75 patients who developed AKI and 75 matched control patients. Higher preoperative HDL-P was associated with less AKI (OR: 0.80; 95% CI, 0.71–0.91; P = 0.001), higher PON-1 activity ( P < 0.001), and lower plasma concentrations of isofurans immediately after surgery (P = 0.02).
Association of serum HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 levels with risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infectionIndividuals with features of metabolic syndrome are particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus associated with the severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite considerable attention dedicated to COVID-19, the link between metabolic syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Using data from the UK Biobank, we investigated the relationship between severity of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome-related serum biomarkers measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Metabolic profiling in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain of patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosisCerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is caused by autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in CYP27A1, a gene encoding cytochrome p450 oxidase essential for bile acid synthesis, resulting in altered bile acid and lipid metabolism. Here, we aimed to identify metabolic aberrations that drive ongoing neurodegeneration in some patients with CTX despite chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) supplementation, the standard treatment in CTX. Using chromatographic separation techniques coupled to mass spectrometry, we analyzed 26 sterol metabolites in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with CTX and in one CTX brain.
Plasma ceramides containing saturated fatty acids are associated with risk of type 2 diabetesRecent studies suggest that the type of saturated fatty acid bound to sphingolipids influences the biological activity of those sphingolipids. However, it is unknown whether associations of sphingolipids with diabetes may differ by the identity of bound lipid species. Here, we investigated associations of 15 ceramide (Cer) and SM species (i.e., all sphingolipids, measured with coefficient of variation less than 20%) with incident type 2 diabetes in the Cardiovascular Health Study (n = 3,645), a large cohort study of cardiovascular disease among elderly adults who were followed from 1989 to 2015.
Simultaneous analyses of urinary eicosanoids and related mediators identified tetranor-prostaglandin E metabolite as a novel biomarker of diabetic nephropathyDiabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus, and thus novel biomarkers are desired to evaluate the presence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we sought to identify possible metabolites related to diabetic nephropathy among urinary eicosanoids and related mediators. Using liquid chromatogram-tandem mass spectrometry, we optimized the lipid extraction from urine using the Monospin C18 as a solid-phase extraction cartridge and measured the urinary lipid mediators in 111 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as 33 healthy subjects.
Lipid and metabolic syndrome traits in coronary artery disease: a Mendelian randomization studyMendelian randomization (MR) of lipid traits in CAD has provided evidence for causal associations of LDL-C and TGs in CAD, but many lipid trait genetic variants have pleiotropic effects on other cardiovascular risk factors that may bias MR associations. The goal of this study was to evaluate pleiotropic effects of lipid trait genetic variants and to account for these effects in MR of lipid traits in CAD. We performed multivariable MR using inverse variance-weighted and MR-Egger methods in large (n ≥ 300,000) GWAS datasets.
Progression of chronic kidney disease in familial LCAT deficiency: a follow-up of the Italian cohortFamilial LCAT deficiency (FLD) is a rare genetic disorder of HDL metabolism, caused by loss-of-function mutations in the LCAT gene and characterized by a variety of symptoms including corneal opacities and kidney failure. Renal disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in FLD cases. However, the prognosis is not known and the rate of deterioration of kidney function is variable and unpredictable from patient to patient. In this article, we present data from a follow-up of the large Italian cohort of FLD patients, who have been followed for an average of 12 years.
LDL subclass lipidomics in atherogenic dyslipidemia: effect of statin therapy on bioactive lipids and dense LDLAtherogenic LDL particles are physicochemically and metabolically heterogeneous. Can bioactive lipid cargo differentiate LDL subclasses, and thus potential atherogenicity? What is the effect of statin treatment? Obese hypertriglyceridemic hypercholesterolemic males [n = 12; lipoprotein (a) <10 mg/dl] received pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/day) for 180 days in a single-phase unblinded study. The lipidomic profiles (23 lipid classes) of five LDL subclasses fractionated from baseline and post-statin plasmas were determined by LC-MS.
Hexacosenoyl-CoA is the most abundant very long-chain acyl-CoA in ATP binding cassette transporter D1-deficient cellsX-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disorder caused by deleterious mutations in the ABCD1 gene. The ABCD1 protein transports very long-chain FAs (VLCFAs) from the cytosol into the peroxisome where the VLCFAs are degraded through β-oxidation. ABCD1 dysfunction leads to VLCFA accumulation in individuals with X-ALD. FAs are activated by esterification to CoA before metabolic utilization. However, the intracellular pools and metabolic profiles of individual acyl-CoA esters have not been fully analyzed.
Nonsynonymous SNPs in LPA homologous to plasminogen deficiency mutants represent novel null apo(a) allelesPlasma lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels are largely determined by variation in the LPA gene, which codes for apo(a). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified nonsynonymous variants in LPA that associate with low Lp(a) levels, although their effect on apo(a) function is unknown. We investigated two such variants, R990Q and R1771C, which were present in four null Lp(a) individuals, for structural and functional effects. Sequence alignments showed the R990 and R1771 residues to be highly conserved and homologous to each other and to residues associated with plasminogen deficiency.
High density lipoprotein and its apolipoprotein-defined subspecies and risk of dementiaWhether HDL is associated with dementia risk is unclear. In addition to apoA1, other apolipoproteins are found in HDL, creating subspecies of HDL that may have distinct metabolic properties. We measured apoA1, apoC3, and apoJ levels in plasma and apoA1 levels in HDL that contains or lacks apoE, apoJ, or apoC3 using a modified sandwich ELISA in a case-cohort study nested within the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study. We included 995 randomly selected participants and 521 participants who developed dementia during a mean of 5.1 years of follow-up.
The interaction between ABCA1 polymorphism and physical activity on the HDL-cholesterol levels in a Japanese populationFew studies have investigated the interactions between HDL-C-related SNPs identified by genome-wide association (GWA) study and physical activity (PA) on HDL-C. First, we conducted a sex-stratified GWA study in a discovery sample (2,231 men and 2,431 women) and replication sample (2,599 men and 3,109 women) to identify SNPs influencing log-transformed HDL-C in Japanese participants in the baseline survey of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. We also replicated previously reported HDL-C-related SNPs in a combined (discovery plus replication) sample (4,830 men and 5,540 women).
Investigation of diagnostic performance of five urinary cholesterol metabolites for Niemann-Pick disease type CNiemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive nervous degeneration. Because of the diversity of clinical symptoms and onset age, the diagnosis of this disease is difficult. Therefore, biomarker tests have attracted significant attention for earlier diagnostics. In this study, we developed a simultaneous analysis method for five urinary conjugated cholesterol metabolites, which are potential diagnostic biomarkers for a rapid, convenient, and noninvasive chemical diagnosis, using LC/MS/MS.
Potent reduction of plasma lipoprotein (a) with an antisense oligonucleotide in human subjects does not affect ex vivo fibrinolysisIt is postulated that lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] inhibits fibrinolysis, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans due to the lack of specific Lp(a) lowering agents. Patients with elevated Lp(a) were randomized to antisense oligonucleotide [IONIS-APO(a)Rx] directed to apo(a) (n = 7) or placebo (n = 10). Ex vivo plasma lysis times and antigen concentrations of plasminogen, factor XI, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and fibrinogen at baseline, day 85/92/99 (peak drug effect), and day 190 (3 months off drug) were measured.
A genome-wide search for gene-by-obesity interaction loci of dyslipidemia in Koreans shows diverse genetic risk allelesDyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for CVD. Studies suggest that similar fat accumulation in a given population might result in different levels of dyslipidemia risk among individuals; for example, despite similar or leaner body composition compared with Caucasians, Asians of Korean descent experience a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia. These variations imply a possible role of gene-obesity interactions on lipid profiles. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 500 loci regulating plasma lipids, but the interaction structure between genes and obesity traits remains unclear.
Metabolism of cholesterol and progesterone is differentially regulated in primary trophoblastic subtypes and might be disturbed in recurrent miscarriagesDuring pregnancy, extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade the maternal decidua and remodel the local vasculature to establish blood supply for the growing fetus. Compromised EVT function has been linked to aberrant pregnancy associated with maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. However, metabolic features of this invasive trophoblast subtype are largely unknown. Using primary human trophoblasts isolated from first trimester placental tissues, we show that cellular cholesterol homeostasis is differentially regulated in EVTs compared with villous cytotrophoblasts.
Four nights of sleep restriction suppress the postprandial lipemic response and decrease satietyChronic sleep restriction, or inadequate sleep, is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. Laboratory studies demonstrate that sleep restriction causes impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal. Evidence suggests that inadequate sleep also impairs adipose tissue insulin sensitivity and the NEFA rebound during intravenous glucose tolerance tests, yet no studies have examined the effects of sleep restriction on high-fat meal lipemia. We assessed the effect of 5 h time in bed (TIB) per night for four consecutive nights on postprandial lipemia following a standardized high-fat dinner (HFD).
PCSK9 loss-of-function variants and Lp(a) phenotypes among black US adultsThe pharmacologic inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) lowers lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentrations. However, the impact of genetic PCSK9 loss-of-function variants (LOFVs) on Lp(a) is uncertain. We determined the association of PCSK9 LOFVs with Lp(a) measures among black adults. Genotyping for PCSK9 LOFVs was conducted in 10,196 black Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study participants. Among 241 participants with and 723 randomly selected participants without PCSK9 LOFVs, Lp(a) concentations, apo(a) kringle IV (KIV) repeats (a proxy for isoform size), and oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) apoB levels were measured using validated methods.
Partial LPL deletions: rare copy-number variants contributing towards severe hypertriglyceridemiaSevere hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a relatively common form of dyslipidemia with a complex pathophysiology and serious health complications. HTG can develop in the presence of rare genetic factors disrupting genes involved in the triglyceride (TG) metabolic pathway, including large-scale copy-number variants (CNVs). Improvements in next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic analyses have better allowed assessment of CNVs as possible causes of or contributors to severe HTG. We screened targeted sequencing data of 632 patients with severe HTG and identified partial deletions of the LPL gene, encoding the central enzyme involved in the metabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins, in four individuals (0.63%).
High FA2H and UGT8 transcript levels predict hydroxylated hexosylceramide accumulation in lung adenocarcinomaLung cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer. Sphingolipids encompass metabolically interconnected species whose balance has pivotal effects on proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. In this study, we paralleled quantification of sphingolipid species with quantitative (q)PCR analyses of metabolic enzymes in order to identify dysregulated routes of sphingolipid metabolism in different subtypes of lung cancers. Lung samples were submitted to histopathological reexamination in order to confirm cancer type/subtype, which included adenocarcinoma histological subtypes and squamous cell and neuroendocrine carcinomas.
DGAT2 partially compensates for lipid-induced ER stress in human DGAT1-deficient intestinal stem cellsDietary lipids are taken up as FAs by the intestinal epithelium and converted by diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes into triglycerides, which are packaged in chylomicrons or stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs). DGAT1-deficient patients suffer from vomiting, diarrhea, and protein losing enteropathy, illustrating the importance of this process to intestinal homeostasis. Previously, we have shown that DGAT1 deficiency causes decreased LD formation and resistance to unsaturated FA lipotoxicity in patient-derived intestinal organoids.
Comparative quantitative systems pharmacology modeling of anti-PCSK9 therapeutic modalities in hypercholesterolemiaSince the discovery of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) as an attractive target in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, multiple anti-PCSK9 therapeutic modalities have been pursued in drug development. The objective of this research is to set the stage for the quantitative benchmarking of two anti-PCSK9 pharmacological modality classes, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). To this end, we developed an integrative mathematical model of lipoprotein homeostasis describing the dynamic interplay between PCSK9, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoB, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and triglycerides (TGs).
New evidence from plasma ceramides links apoE polymorphism to greater risk of coronary artery disease in Finnish adultsapoE, a key regulator of plasma lipids, mediates altered functionalities in lipoprotein metabolism and thus affects the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). The significance of different apoE polymorphisms remains unclear; although the ε4 allele is clearly associated with increased cholesterol levels (which inform CAD risk), direct studies about apoE polymorphisms on CAD risk and development have yielded controversial results. Furthermore, certain species of ceramides—complex lipids abundant in plasma LDL—are markers of increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death.
Heritability of apolipoprotein (a) traits in two-generational African-American and Caucasian familiesHeritability of LPA allele, apo(a) isoform sizes, and isoform-associated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels was studied in 82 Caucasian and African-American families with two parents and two children (age: 6–74 years). We determined: 1) Lp(a) levels; 2) LPA allele sizes; 3) apo(a) isoform sizes; and 4) isoform-specific apo(a) levels (ISLs), the amount of Lp(a) carried by an individual apo(a) isoform. Trait heritability was estimated by mid-parent-offspring analysis. The ethnicity-adjusted heritability estimate for Lp(a) level was 0.95.
Rare DEGS1 variant significantly alters de novo ceramide synthesis pathwayThe de novo ceramide synthesis pathway is essential to human biology and health, but genetic influences remain unexplored. The core function of this pathway is the generation of biologically active ceramide from its precursor, dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramides have diverse, often protective, biological roles; conversely, increased ceramide levels are biomarkers of complex disease. To explore the genetics of the ceramide synthesis pathway, we searched for deleterious nonsynonymous variants in the genomes of 1,020 Mexican Americans from extended pedigrees.
Plasma apoM and S1P levels are inversely associated with mortality in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitusapoM is a minor HDL apolipoprotein and carrier for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). HDL apoM and S1P concentrations are inversely associated with atherosclerosis progression in rodents. We evaluated associations between plasma concentrations of S1P, plasma concentrations of apoM, and HDL apoM levels with prevalent subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants (N = 545). Associations between plasma S1P, plasma apoM, and HDL apoM with subclinical atherosclerosis and mortality were assessed using multivariate parametric, nonparametric, and Cox proportional hazards models.
Serum apolipoproteins and apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses: a hypothesis-generating prospective study of cardiovascular events in T1DAPOB, APOC3, and APOE and apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLSs; based on qualitative apolipoprotein complement) have been associated with dyslipidemia and CVD. Our main objective was to define associations of serum apolipoproteins and ADLSs with “any CVD” and “major atherosclerotic cardiovascular events” (MACEs) in a prospective study of T1D. Serum apolipoproteins and ADLSs (14 biomarkers in total) were measured in sera (obtained between 1997 and 2000) from a subset (n = 465) of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications cohort.
A genome-wide association study on lipoprotein (a) levels and coronary artery disease severity in a Chinese populationLipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a genetically determined risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which were mostly carried out in Caucasians, have identified many Lp(a)-associated SNPs. Here, we performed a GWAS on Lp(a) levels and further explored the relationships between Lp(a)-associated SNPs and CAD severity in 1,403 Han Chinese subjects. We observed that elevated Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with the increased synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXUS and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score and the counts of heavily calcified lesions and long-range lesions (LRLs; P < 0.05), which are defined as lesions spanning >20 mm.
ABCA1- and ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of cerebrospinal fluid is impaired in Alzheimer's diseaseHDL-like particles in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) promote the efflux of cholesterol from astrocytes toward the neurons that rely on this supply for their functions. We evaluated whether cell cholesterol efflux capacity of CSF (CSF-CEC) is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analyzing AD (n = 37) patients, non-AD dementia (non-AD DEM; n = 16) patients, and control subjects (n = 39). As expected, AD patients showed reduced CSF Aβ 1-42, increased total and phosphorylated tau, and a higher frequency of the apoε4 genotype.
Cholesterol efflux capacity, HDL cholesterol, and risk of coronary heart disease: a nested case-control study in menThe capacity of HDLs to accept cholesterol effluxing from macrophages has been proposed as a new biomarker of HDLs' anti-atherogenic function. Whether cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is independent of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) as a biomarker for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in a generally healthy primary-prevention population remains unanswered. Therefore, in this nested case-control study, we simultaneously assessed CEC (using J774 cells) and plasma HDL-C levels as predictors of CHD in healthy middle-aged and older men not receiving treatment affecting blood lipid concentrations.
Accumulation of saturated intramyocellular lipid is associated with insulin resistanceIntramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation has been linked to both insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive (athletes) states. Biochemical analysis of intramuscular triglyceride composition is confounded by extramyocellular triglycerides in biopsy samples, and hence the specific composition of IMCLs is unknown in these states. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to overcome this problem. Thus, we used a recently validated 1H MRS method to compare the compositional saturation index (CH2:CH3) and concentration independent of the composition (CH3) of IMCLs in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles of 16 female insulin-resistant lipodystrophic subjects with that of age- and gender-matched athletes (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 41).
Metabolomic correlates of central adiposity and earlier-life body mass indexBMI is correlated with circulating metabolites, but few studies discuss other adiposity measures, and little is known about metabolomic correlates of BMI from early life. We investigated associations between different adiposity measures, BMI from childhood through adulthood, and metabolites quantified from serum using 1H NMR spectroscopy in 900 British men and women aged 60–64. We assessed BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (AGR), and BMI from childhood through adulthood.
PCSK7 gene variation bridges atherogenic dyslipidemia with hepatic inflammation in NAFLD patientsDyslipidemia and altered iron metabolism are typical features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7 (PCSK7) gene variation has been associated with circulating lipids and liver damage during iron overload. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the PCSK7 rs236918 variant on NAFLD-related traits in 1,801 individuals from the Liver Biopsy Cohort (LBC), 500,000 from the UK Biobank Cohort (UKBBC), and 4,580 from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS).
n-3 PUFAs improve erythrocyte fatty acid profile in patients with small AAA: a randomized controlled trialAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of death in older adults, which has no current drug therapy. Inflammation and abnormal redox status are believed to be key pathogenic mechanisms for AAA. In light of evidence correlating inflammation with aberrant fatty acid profiles, this study compared erythrocyte fatty acid content in 43 AAA patients (diameter 3.0–4.5 cm) and 52 healthy controls. In addition, the effect of omega-3 PUFA (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on erythrocyte fatty acid content was examined in a cohort of 30 AAA patients as part of a 12 week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
DHA intake interacts with ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 genetic variants to influence polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milkEndogenous synthesis of PUFAs is mediated by genes controlling fatty acid elongases 2 and 5 (ELOVL2 and ELOVL5) and by exogenous DHA intake. Associations between elongases and PUFA levels probably involve genetic variants of ELOVL and changes in DHA intake, but data about their combined effect on PUFA levels are sparse. We hypothesized that each factor would directly affect PUFAs and that interactions between haplotypes and DHA intake would influence PUFAs. We explored four levels of DHA intake in pregnant Chinese Han women and 10 SNPs in the ELOVL genes to determine associations with PUFAs in breast milk.
Longitudinal lipid trends and adverse outcomes in patients with CKD: a 13-year observational cohort studyStudies on the effects of longitudinal lipid trajectories on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) development and deaths among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. We conducted a registry-based prospective study using data from a 13-year multidisciplinary pre-ESRD care program. The final study population comprised 4,647 patients with CKD. Using group-based trajectory modeling, we dichotomized longitudinal trajectories of total cholesterol (T-CHO), triglyceride (TG), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C).
Erythrocyte PUFAs, circulating acylcarnitines, and metabolic syndrome risk: a prospective study in ChineseThe effects of PUFAs on metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain to be characterized, particularly in Asians. We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of PUFAs with MetS and the role of acylcarnitines in these associations in Chinese individuals. Among 1,245 Chinese men and women aged 50–70 years who completed a 6 year follow-up, baseline erythrocyte FAs and plasma acylcarnitines were profiled using gas chromatography coupled with positive chemical ionization and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, respectively.
Plasma proteome correlates of lipid and lipoprotein: biomarkers of metabolic diversity and inflammation in children of rural NepalProteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism can modulate cardiovascular health. While often measured to assess adult metabolic diseases, little is known about the proteomes of lipoproteins and their relation to metabolic dysregulation and underlying inflammation in undernourished child populations. The objective of this population study was to globally characterize plasma proteins systemically associated with HDL, LDL, and triglycerides in 500 Nepalese children. Abnormal lipid profiles characterized by elevated plasma triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations were common, especially in children with subclinical inflammation.
The interrelations between PCSK9 metabolism and cholesterol synthesis and absorptionVery few studies have investigated the interrelations between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) metabolism, cholesterol synthesis, and cholesterol absorption. We aimed to address this issue in a large clinical trial of 245 patients with hypercholesterolemia. Serum lipids, PCSK9, lathosterol (cholesterol synthesis marker), campesterol, and sitosterol (cholesterol absorption markers) were measured before and 4–8 weeks after the start of treatment with PCSK9-antibodies (alirocumab or evolocumab).
Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is paradoxically maintained in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease despite low HDL cholesterolNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by low HDL cholesterol, but the activity of the HDL-associated antioxidative enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) remains unclear. To determine the association of PON-1 with suspected NAFLD, we measured serum enzyme activity in 7,622 participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease cohort. A fatty liver index (FLI) ≥60, a proxy of NAFLD, was present in 2,083 participants (27.3%) and coincided with increased prevalence of T2D, metabolic syndrome (MetS), (central) obesity, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol (all P < 0.001).
Splice variant rs72613567 prevents worst histologic outcomes in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver diseaseHydroxysteroid 17-#x03B2; dehydrogenase 13 (HSD17B13) is a lipid droplet-associated protein; its gene-encoding variants affect the chronic liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To estimate the effect of rs72613567, a splice variant with an adenine insertion (A-INS), on NAFLD susceptibility and severity, we performed a case-control study with 609 individuals. We investigated the effect of carrying the A-INS allele in 356 patients with biopsy-proven disease and explored the relationship between rs72613567 genotypes and the hepatic transcriptome.
Quantitative determination of esterified eicosanoids and related oxygenated metabolites after base hydrolysisEicosanoids and related metabolites (oxylipins) possess potent signaling properties, elicit numerous important physiologic responses, and serve as biomarkers of disease. In addition to their presence in free form, a considerable portion of these bioactive lipids is esterified to complex lipids in cell membranes and plasma lipoproteins. We developed a rapid and sensitive method for the analysis of esterified oxylipins using alkaline hydrolysis to release them followed by ultra-performance LC coupled with mass spectrometric analysis.
Genetic and secondary causes of severe HDL deficiency and cardiovascular diseaseWe assessed secondary and genetic causes of severe HDL deficiency in 258,252 subjects, of whom 370 men (0.33%) and 144 women (0.099%) had HDL cholesterol levels <20 mg/dl. We excluded 206 subjects (40.1%) with significant elevations of triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase, or liver enzymes and men receiving testosterone. We sequenced 23 lipid-related genes in 201 (65.3%) of 308 eligible subjects. Mutations (23 novel) and selected variants were found at the following gene loci: 1) ABCA1 (26.9%): 2 homozygotes, 7 compound or double heterozygotes, 30 heterozygotes, and 2 homozygotes and 13 heterozygotes with variants rs9282541/p.R230C or rs111292742/c.-279C>G; 2) LCAT (12.4%): 1 homozygote, 3 compound heterozygotes, 13 heterozygotes, and 8 heterozygotes with variant rs4986970/p.S232T; 3) APOA1 (5.0%): 1 homozygote and 9 heterozygotes; and 4) LPL (4.5%): 1 heterozygote and 8 heterozygotes with variant rs268/p.N318S.
Effects of mipomersen, an apolipoprotein B100 antisense, on lipoprotein (a) metabolism in healthy subjectsElevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels increase the risk for CVD. Novel treatments that decrease LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) have also shown promise for reducing Lp(a) levels. Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits apoB synthesis, is approved for the treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. It decreases plasma levels of LDL-C by 25% to 39% and lowers levels of Lp(a) by 21% to 39%. We examined the mechanisms for Lp(a) lowering during mipomersen treatment. We enrolled 14 healthy volunteers who received weekly placebo injections for 3 weeks followed by weekly injections of mipomersen for 7 weeks.
Does pregnancy alter life-course lipid trajectories? Evidence from the HUNT Study in NorwayWe examined the association between pregnancy and life-course lipid trajectories. Linked data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway yielded 19,987 parous and 1,625 nulliparous women. Using mixed-effects spline models, we estimated differences in nonfasting lipid levels from before to after first birth in parous women and between parous and nulliparous women. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) dropped by −4.2 mg/dl (95% CI: −5.0, −3.3) from before to after first birth in adjusted models, a 7% change, and the total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C ratio increased by 0.18 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.25), with no change in non-HDL-C or triglycerides.
Reduction of stratum corneum ceramides in Neu-Laxova syndrome caused by phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyNeu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is a very rare autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by disturbed development of the central nervous system and the skin and caused by mutations in any of the three genes involved in de novo l-serine biosynthesis: PHGDH, PSAT1, and PSPH. l-Serine is essential for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine and sphingolipids. The extracellular lipid of the stratum corneum, of which sphingolipid constitutes a significant part, plays a primary role in skin barrier function.
Scavenger receptor BI promotes cytoplasmic accumulation of lipoproteins in clear-cell renal cell carcinomaClear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are characterized by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene and intracellular lipid accumulation by unknown pathomechanisms. The immunochemical analysis of 356 RCCs revealed high abundance of apoA-I and apoB, as well as scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the ccRCC subtype. Given the characteristic loss of VHL function in ccRCC, we used VHL-defective and VHL-proficient cells to study the potential influence of VHL on lipoprotein uptake. VHL-defective patient-derived ccRCC cells and cell lines (786O and RCC4) showed enhanced uptake as well as less resecretion and degradation of radio-iodinated HDL and LDL (125I-HDL and 125I-LDL, respectively) compared with the VHL-proficient cells.
Postprandial bile acid levels in intestine and plasma reveal altered biliary circulation in chronic pancreatitis patientsBile acid (BA) secretion and circulation in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) were investigated by simultaneously measuring postprandial levels of individual BAs in duodenal contents and blood plasma using LC-MS/MS. CP patients and healthy volunteers (HVs) were intubated with gastric and duodenal tubes prior to the administration of a test meal and continuous aspiration of duodenal contents. Pancreatic lipase outputs in CP patients were very low (0.7 ± 0.2 mg) versus HVs (116.7 ± 68.1 mg; P < 0.005), thus confirming the severity of EPI.
Newborn screening for cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is the solution for early identification and treatmentCerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a progressive metabolic leukodystrophy. Early identification and treatment from birth onward effectively provides a functional cure, but diagnosis is often delayed. We conducted a pilot study using a two-tier test for CTX to screen archived newborn dried bloodspots (DBSs) or samples collected prospectively from a high-risk Israeli newborn population. All DBS samples were analyzed with flow injection analysis (FIA)-MS/MS, and 5% of samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS.
Mitochondrial dysfunction-related lipid changes occur in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progressionNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises fat-accumulating conditions within hepatocytes that can cause severe liver damage and metabolic comorbidities. Studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to its development and progression and that the hepatic lipidome changes extensively in obesity and in NAFLD. To gain insight into the relationship between lipid metabolism and disease progression through different stages of NAFLD, we performed lipidomic analysis of plasma and liver biopsy samples from obese patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and from those without NAFLD.
Genome-wide association study identifies novel recessive genetic variants for high TGs in an Arab populationAbnormal blood lipid levels are influenced by genetic and lifestyle/dietary factors. Although many genetic variants associated with blood lipid traits have been identified in Europeans, similar data in Middle Eastern populations are limited. We performed a genome-wide association study with Arab individuals (discovery cohort: 1,353; replication cohort: 1,176) from Kuwait to identify possible associations of genetic variants with high lipid levels. We used Illumina HumanOmniExpress BeadChip and candidate SNP genotyping in the discovery and replication phases, respectively.
Effect of antiretroviral therapy on allele-associated Lp(a) level in women with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV StudyWe previously demonstrated an association between lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels and atherosclerosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women. The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on Lp(a) levels in relation to apo(a) size polymorphism remain unclear. ART effects on allele-specific apo(a) level (ASL), an Lp(a) level associated with individual apo(a) alleles within each allele-pair, were determined in 126 HIV-seropositive women. ART effects were tested by a mixed-effects model across pre-ART and post-ART first and third visits.
Global genetic diversity of human apolipoproteins and effects on cardiovascular disease riskAbnormal plasma apolipoprotein levels are consistently implicated in CVD risk. Although 30% to 60% of their interindividual variability is genetic, common genetic variants explain only 10% to 20% of these differences. Rare genetic variants may be major sources of the missing heritability, yet quantitative evaluations of their contribution to phenotypic variability are lacking. Here, we analyzed whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing data from 138,632 individuals across seven major human populations to present a systematic overview of genetic apolipoprotein variability.
MS-based lipidomics of human blood plasma: a community-initiated position paper to develop accepted guidelinesHuman blood is a self-regenerating lipid-rich biological fluid that is routinely collected in hospital settings. The inventory of lipid molecules found in blood plasma (plasma lipidome) offers insights into individual metabolism and physiology in health and disease. Disturbances in the plasma lipidome also occur in conditions that are not directly linked to lipid metabolism; therefore, plasma lipidomics based on MS is an emerging tool in an array of clinical diagnostics and disease management. However, challenges exist in the translation of such lipidomic data to clinical applications.
Plasma concentrations of molecular lipid species predict long-term clinical outcome in coronary artery disease patientsWe investigated the associations of ten previously identified high risk molecular lipid species and three ceramide ratios with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) during a median follow-up of 4.7 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Between 2008 and 2011, 581 patients underwent diagnostic coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention for stable angina pectoris (SAP) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Blood was drawn prior to the index procedure and lipid species were determined.
Racial differences in in vivo adipose lipid kinetics in humansThe storage of lipids in the form of triglycerides (TGs) and the de novo synthesis (lipogenesis) of fatty acids from nonlipid precursors [de novo lipogenesis (DNL)] are important functions of adipose tissue (AT) that influence whole-body metabolism. Yet, few studies have reported in vivo estimates of adipose lipid kinetics in humans. Fifty-two women with obesity (27 African-American and 25 Caucasian; 29.7 ± 5.5 years; BMI 32.2 ± 2.8 kg/m2; 44.3 ± 4.0% body fat) were enrolled in the study. In vivo synthesis (or replacement) of TGs (fTG) as well as the synthesis of the fatty acid, palmitate [a measure of adipose DNL (fDNL)], were assessed using an 8 week incorporation of deuterium into lipids (glycerol and palmitate moieties of TGs) in subcutaneous abdominal (scABD) and subcutaneous femoral (scFEM) AT.
Total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular disease (re)hospitalization nadir in type 2 diabetesTotal cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) is an important prognostic factor for CVD. This study used restricted cubic spline modeling to investigate the dose-response associations between TC/HDL and both CVD hospitalization and CVD rehospitalization in two independent prospective cohorts. The East Cambridgeshire and Fenland cohort includes 4,704 patients with T2D from 18 general practices in Cambridgeshire. The Randomized controlled trial of Peer Support In type 2 Diabetes cohort comprises 1,121 patients with T2D with posttrial follow-up data.
Clusters of fatty acids in the serum triacylglyceride fraction associate with the disorders of type 2 diabetesOur aim was to examine longitudinal associations of triacylglyceride fatty acid (TGFA) composition with insulin sensitivity (IS) and β-cell function. Adults at risk for T2D (n = 477) had glucose and insulin measured from a glucose challenge at three time points over 6 years. The outcome variables Matsuda insulin sensitivity index, homeostatic model of assessment 2–percent sensitivity (HOMA2-%S), Insulinogenic Index over HOMA-IR (IGI/IR), and Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2 were computed from the glucose challenge.
Omega-6 oxylipins generated by soluble epoxide hydrolase are associated with knee osteoarthritisOmega-6 FAs are inflammatory mediators that are increased in joints with osteoarthritis (OA), but their association with OA progression is not yet well defined. To investigate the relationship between omega-6 FAs and knee OA, we measured with LC-MS the levels of 22 omega-6 lipids (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and 20 oxylipins) in synovial fluid (SF) from 112 knees of 102 individuals (58 with knee OA; 44 controls). We hypothesized that oxylipin metabolites would increase in OA knee SF and with radiographically progressive disease.
Effects of oils and solid fats on blood lipids: a systematic review and network meta-analysisThe aim of this network meta-analysis (NMA) is to compare the effects of different oils/solid fats on blood lipids. Literature searches were performed until March 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: i) randomized trial (≥3 weeks study length) comparing at least two of the following oils/solid fats: safflower, sunflower, rapeseed, hempseed, flaxseed, corn, olive, soybean, palm, and coconut oil, and lard, beef-fat, and butter; ii) outcomes LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TGs).
Lipid levels are inversely associated with infectious and all-cause mortality: international MONDO study resultsCardiovascular (CV) events are increased 36-fold in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, randomized controlled trials to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and serum total cholesterol (TC) have not shown significant mortality improvements. An inverse association of TC and LDL-C with all-cause and CV mortality has been observed in patients on chronic dialysis. Lipoproteins also may protect against infectious diseases. We used data from 37,250 patients in the international Monitoring Dialysis Outcomes (MONDO) database to evaluate the association between lipids and infection-related or CV mortality.
Large-scale deletions of the ABCA1 gene in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemiaCopy-number variations (CNVs) have been studied in the context of familial hypercholesterolemia but have not yet been evaluated in patients with extreme levels of HDL cholesterol. We evaluated targeted, next-generation sequencing data from patients with very low levels of HDL cholesterol (i.e., hypoalphalipoproteinemia) with the VarSeq-CNV® caller algorithm to screen for CNVs that disrupted the ABCA1, LCAT, or APOA1 genes. In four individuals, we found three unique deletions in ABCA1: a heterozygous deletion of exon 4, a heterozygous deletion that spanned exons 8 to 31, and a heterozygous deletion of the entire ABCA1 gene.
Diabetes adversely affects phospholipid profiles in human carotid artery endarterectomy plaquesPatients with diabetes are at higher risk of developing carotid artery stenosis and resultant stroke. Arachidonoyl phospholipids affect plaque inflammation and vulnerability, but whether diabetic patients have unique carotid artery phospholipidomic profiles is unknown. We performed a comprehensive paired analysis of phospholipids in extracranial carotid endarterectomy (CEA) plaques of matched diabetic and nondiabetic patients and analyzed mass spectrometry-derived profiles of three phospholipids, plasmenyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (pPE), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol (PI), in maximally (MAX) and minimally (MIN) diseased CEA segments.
Cholesterol efflux capacity does not associate with coronary calcium, plaque vulnerability, and telomere length in healthy octogenariansSeveral studies have revealed that traditional risk factors are less effective in predicting CVD risk in the elderly, suggesting the need to identify new biomarkers. Here, we evaluated the association between serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), an atheroprotective property of HDL recently identified as a novel marker of CVD risk, and atherosclerotic burden in a cohort of very old, healthy individuals. Serum CEC values were not significantly correlated either with calcium score or with markers of vulnerable plaque, such as positive remodeling, hypodensity, spotty calcification, or napking-ring sign.
An exome-wide sequencing study of lipid response to high-fat meal and fenofibrate in Caucasians from the GOLDN cohortOur understanding of genetic influences on the response of lipids to specific interventions is limited. In this study, we sought to elucidate effects of rare genetic variants on lipid response to a high-fat meal challenge and fenofibrate (FFB) therapy in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) cohort using an exome-wide sequencing-based association study. Our results showed that the rare coding variants in ITGA7, SIPA1L2, and CEP72 are significantly associated with fasting LDL cholesterol response to FFB (P = 1.24E-07), triglyceride postprandial area under the increase (AUI) (P = 2.31E-06), and triglyceride postprandial AUI response to FFB (P = 1.88E-06), respectively.
Analysis of HETEs in human whole blood by chiral UHPLC-ECAPCI/HRMSThe biosynthesis of eicosanoids occurs enzymatically via lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450, or through nonenzymatic free radical reactions. The enzymatic routes are highly enantiospecific. Chiral separation and high-sensitivity detection methods are required to differentiate and quantify enantioselective HETEs in complex biological fluids. We report here a targeted chiral lipidomics analysis of human blood using ultra-HPLC-electron capture (EC) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/high-resolution MS.
Cerebral organoids derived from Sandhoff disease-induced pluripotent stem cells exhibit impaired neurodifferentiationSandhoff disease, one of the GM2 gangliosidoses, is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the absence of β-hexosaminidase A and B activity and the concomitant lysosomal accumulation of its substrate, GM2 ganglioside. It features catastrophic neurodegeneration and death in early childhood. How the lysosomal accumulation of ganglioside might affect the early development of the nervous system is not understood. Recently, cerebral organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have illuminated early developmental events altered by disease processes.