JLR Patient-Oriented and Epidemiological Research
- Individuals with features of metabolic syndrome are particularly susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus associated with the severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite considerable attention dedicated to COVID-19, the link between metabolic syndrome and SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Using data from the UK Biobank, we investigated the relationship between severity of COVID-19 and metabolic syndrome-related serum biomarkers measured prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
- Atherogenic LDL particles are physicochemically and metabolically heterogeneous. Can bioactive lipid cargo differentiate LDL subclasses, and thus potential atherogenicity? What is the effect of statin treatment? Obese hypertriglyceridemic hypercholesterolemic males [n = 12; lipoprotein (a) <10 mg/dl] received pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/day) for 180 days in a single-phase unblinded study. The lipidomic profiles (23 lipid classes) of five LDL subclasses fractionated from baseline and post-statin plasmas were determined by LC-MS.
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by low HDL cholesterol, but the activity of the HDL-associated antioxidative enzyme paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) remains unclear. To determine the association of PON-1 with suspected NAFLD, we measured serum enzyme activity in 7,622 participants of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease cohort. A fatty liver index (FLI) ≥60, a proxy of NAFLD, was present in 2,083 participants (27.3%) and coincided with increased prevalence of T2D, metabolic syndrome (MetS), (central) obesity, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol (all P < 0.001).
- Survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children, are at increased risk of developing late cardiometabolic conditions. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma lipid profile, Apo distribution, and lipoprotein composition of 80 childhood ALL survivors compared with 22 healthy controls. Our results show that, despite their young age, 50% of the ALL survivors displayed dyslipidemia, characterized by increased plasma triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol, as well as decreased HDL-cholesterol.
- The impact of statin treatment on the abnormal plasma lipidome of mixed dyslipidemic patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), a group at increased risk of developing diabetes, was evaluated. Insulin-resistant hypertriglyceridemic hypertensive obese males (n = 12) displaying MetS were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days; healthy normolipidemic age-matched nonobese males (n = 12) acted as controls. Statin treatment substantially normalized triglyceride (−41%), remnant cholesterol (−55%), and LDL-cholesterol (−39%), with minor effect on HDL-cholesterol (+4%).
- The thromboxane synthase converts prostaglandin H2 to thromboxane A2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) in approximately equimolar amounts. A reactive dicarbonyl, MDA forms covalent adducts of amino groups, including the ε-amine of lysine, but the importance of this reaction in platelets was unknown. Utilizing a novel LC/MS/MS method for analysis of one of the MDA adducts, the dilysyl-MDA cross-link, we demonstrated that dilysyl-MDA cross-links in human platelets are formed following platelet activation via the cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/thromboxane synthase pathway.