Regular Research Articles
- Little is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
- The cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
- The lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.
- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including nonsteatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (nonalcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors.
- Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections.