Regular Research Articles
Characterization of long-chain fatty acid-linked bile acids: a major conjugation form of 3β-hydroxy bile acids in fecesAlthough most bile acids (BAs) in feces are present in noncovalent forms that can be extracted with ethanol, non-negligible amounts of saponifiable BAs are also present. It is a major concern that such saponifiable BAs are routinely omitted from fecal BA measurements. We compared the BA profiles of healthy stools that were obtained with/without alkaline hydrolysis and found that as much as 29.7% (2.1–67.7%) of total BAs were saponifiable. Specifically, alkaline treatment led to significant elevations of isodeoxycholic acid (isoDCA) and isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) concentrations, suggesting that considerable proportions of isoDCA and isoLCA were esterified.
The SARS-CoV2 envelope differs from host cells, exposes procoagulant lipids, and is disrupted in vivo by oral rinsesThe lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.
Determination of tissue contributions to the circulating lipid pool in cold exposure via systematic assessment of lipid profilesPlasma lipid levels are altered in chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as during acute stresses such as fasting and cold exposure. Advances in MS-based lipidomics have uncovered a complex plasma lipidome of more than 500 lipids that serve functional roles, including as energy substrates and signaling molecules. This plasma lipid pool is maintained through regulation of tissue production, secretion, and uptake. A major challenge in understanding the lipidome complexity is establishing the tissues of origin and uptake for various plasma lipids, which is valuable for determining lipid functions.