Regular Research Articles
Identification and characterization of LPLAT7 as an sn-1-specific lysophospholipid acyltransferaseThe main fatty acids at the sn-1 position of phospholipids (PLs) are saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) and are constantly replaced, like unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the replacement of fatty acids at the sn-1 position, i.e., the sn-1 remodeling. Previously, we established a method to evaluate the incorporation of fatty acids into the sn-1 position of lysophospholipids (lyso-PLs).
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Isomeric lipid signatures reveal compartmentalized fatty acid metabolism in cancerThe cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
The SARS-CoV2 envelope differs from host cells, exposes procoagulant lipids, and is disrupted in vivo by oral rinsesThe lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.
Determination of tissue contributions to the circulating lipid pool in cold exposure via systematic assessment of lipid profilesPlasma lipid levels are altered in chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as during acute stresses such as fasting and cold exposure. Advances in MS-based lipidomics have uncovered a complex plasma lipidome of more than 500 lipids that serve functional roles, including as energy substrates and signaling molecules. This plasma lipid pool is maintained through regulation of tissue production, secretion, and uptake. A major challenge in understanding the lipidome complexity is establishing the tissues of origin and uptake for various plasma lipids, which is valuable for determining lipid functions.
Apolipoprotein F concentration, activity, and the properties of LDL controlling ApoF activation in hyperlipidemic plasmaApolipoprotein F (ApoF) modulates lipoprotein metabolism by selectively inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity on LDL. This ApoF activity requires that it is bound to LDL. How hyperlipidemia alters total plasma ApoF and its binding to LDL are poorly understood. In this study, total plasma ApoF and LDL-bound ApoF were quantified by ELISA (n = 200). Plasma ApoF was increased 31% in hypercholesterolemic plasma but decreased 20% in hypertriglyceridemia. However, in donors with combined hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, the elevated triglyceride ameliorated the rise in ApoF caused by hypercholesterolemia alone.