Regular Research Articles
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Sar1b mutant mice recapitulate gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with chylomicron retention diseaseChylomicron retention disease (CRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with biallelic Sar1b mutations leading to defects in intracellular chylomicron (CM) trafficking and secretion. To date, a direct cause-effect relationship between CRD and Sar1b mutation has not been established, but genetically modified animal models provide an opportunity to elucidate unrecognized aspects of these mutations. To examine the physiological role and molecular mechanisms of Sar1b function, we generated mice expressing either a targeted deletion or mutation of human Sar1b using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.
Atherosclerosis-associated hepatic secretion of VLDL but not PCSK9 is dependent on cargo receptor protein Surf4Plasma LDL is produced from catabolism of VLDL and cleared from circulation mainly via the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes LDLR degradation, increasing plasma LDL-C levels. Circulating PCSK9 is mainly secreted by the liver, whereas VLDL is exclusively secreted by hepatocytes. However, the mechanism regulating their secretion is not completely understood. Surfeit 4 (Surf4) is a cargo receptor localized in the ER membrane. It recruits cargos into coat protein complex II vesicles to facilitate their secretion.
Gene networks and pathways for plasma lipid traits via multitissue multiomics systems analysisGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated ∼380 genetic loci for plasma lipid regulation. However, these loci only explain 17–27% of the trait variance, and a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms has not been achieved. In this study, we utilized an integrative genomics approach leveraging diverse genomic data from human populations to investigate whether genetic variants associated with various plasma lipid traits, namely, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL), and triglycerides, from GWASs were concentrated on specific parts of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks.