Regular Research Articles
Cannabinoid type 1 receptor inverse agonism attenuates dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in APOE∗3-Leiden.CETP micePharmacological blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the central nervous system and various peripheral tissues, reverses diet-induced obesity and dyslipidemia through the reduction of food intake and altered nutrient partitioning. This strategy is being explored for a number of therapeutic applications; however, its potency for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease via improvements in lipid metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, here, we aimed to investigate whether inhibition of the endocannabinoid system can attenuate atherosclerosis development through improvement of dyslipidemia.
Carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) does not contribute to cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in the liverThe liver is the central organ regulating cholesterol synthesis, storage, transport, and elimination. Mouse carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) and its human ortholog CES1 have been described to possess lipase activity and play roles in hepatic triacylglycerol metabolism and VLDL assembly. It has been proposed that Ces1d/CES1 might also catalyze cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolysis in the liver and thus be responsible for the hydrolysis of HDL-derived CE; this could contribute to the final step in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway, wherein cholesterol is secreted from the liver into bile and feces, either directly or after conversion to water-soluble bile salts.
Antisense oligonucleotide–mediated inhibition of angiopoietin-like protein 3 increases reverse cholesterol transport in miceSupported by an abundance of experimental and genetic evidence, angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. ANGPTL3 is primarily produced by the liver and is a potent modulator of plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Experimental models and subjects with loss-of-function Angptl3 mutations typically present with lower levels of HDL-C than noncarriers. The effect of ANGPTL3 on HDL-C is typically attributed to its function as an inhibitor of the enzyme endothelial lipase.