Regular Research Articles
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Consequences of excessive glucosylsphingosine in glucocerebrosidase-deficient zebrafish.In Gaucher disease (GD), the deficiency of glucocerebrosidase causes lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide (GlcCer), which is partly converted by acid ceramidase to glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph) in the lysosome. Chronically elevated blood and tissue GlcSph is thought to contribute to symptoms in GD patients as well as to increased risk for Parkinson’s disease. On the other hand, formation of GlcSph may be beneficial since the water soluble sphingoid base is excreted via urine and bile. To study the role of excessive GlcSph formation during glucocerebrosidase deficiency, we studied zebrafish that have two orthologs of acid ceramidase, Asah1a and Asah1b.
Lipid remodeling in response to methionine stress in MDA-MBA-468 triple-negative breast cancer cellsMethionine (Met) is an essential amino acid and critical precursor to the cellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Unlike nontransformed cells, cancer cells have a unique metabolic requirement for Met and are unable to proliferate in growth media where Met is replaced with its metabolic precursor, homocysteine. This metabolic vulnerability is common among cancer cells regardless of tissue origin and is known as “methionine dependence”, “methionine stress sensitivity”, or the Hoffman effect. The response of lipids to Met stress, however, is not well-understood.
Sar1b mutant mice recapitulate gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with chylomicron retention diseaseChylomicron retention disease (CRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with biallelic Sar1b mutations leading to defects in intracellular chylomicron (CM) trafficking and secretion. To date, a direct cause-effect relationship between CRD and Sar1b mutation has not been established, but genetically modified animal models provide an opportunity to elucidate unrecognized aspects of these mutations. To examine the physiological role and molecular mechanisms of Sar1b function, we generated mice expressing either a targeted deletion or mutation of human Sar1b using the CRISPR-Cas9 system.
Atherosclerosis-associated hepatic secretion of VLDL but not PCSK9 is dependent on cargo receptor protein Surf4Plasma LDL is produced from catabolism of VLDL and cleared from circulation mainly via the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes LDLR degradation, increasing plasma LDL-C levels. Circulating PCSK9 is mainly secreted by the liver, whereas VLDL is exclusively secreted by hepatocytes. However, the mechanism regulating their secretion is not completely understood. Surfeit 4 (Surf4) is a cargo receptor localized in the ER membrane. It recruits cargos into coat protein complex II vesicles to facilitate their secretion.
Shark liver oil supplementation enriches endogenous plasmalogens and reduces markers of dyslipidemia and inflammationPlasmalogens are membrane glycerophospholipids with diverse biological functions. Reduced plasmalogen levels have been observed in metabolic diseases; hence, increasing their levels might be beneficial in ameliorating these conditions. Shark liver oil (SLO) is a rich source of alkylglycerols that can be metabolized into plasmalogens. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of SLO supplementation on endogenous plasmalogen levels in individuals with features of metabolic disease. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, the participants (10 overweight or obese males) received 4-g Alkyrol® (purified SLO) or placebo (methylcellulose) per day for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week washout phase and were then crossed over to 3 weeks of the alternate placebo/Alkyrol® treatment.
PEGylated AdipoRon derivatives improve glucose and lipid metabolism under insulinopenic and high-fat diet conditionsThe pleiotropic actions of adiponectin in improving cell survival and metabolism have motivated the development of small-molecule therapeutic agents for treating diabetes and lipotoxicity. AdipoRon is a synthetic agonist of the adiponectin receptors, yet is limited by its poor solubility and bioavailability. In this work, we expand on the protective effects of AdipoRon in pancreatic β-cells and examine how structural modifications could affect the activity, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability of this small molecule.
Gene networks and pathways for plasma lipid traits via multitissue multiomics systems analysisGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated ∼380 genetic loci for plasma lipid regulation. However, these loci only explain 17–27% of the trait variance, and a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms has not been achieved. In this study, we utilized an integrative genomics approach leveraging diverse genomic data from human populations to investigate whether genetic variants associated with various plasma lipid traits, namely, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL), and triglycerides, from GWASs were concentrated on specific parts of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks.
Dietary sphinganine is selectively assimilated by members of the mammalian gut microbiomeFunctions of the gut microbiome have a growing number of implications for host metabolic health, with diet being one of the most significant influences on microbiome composition. Compelling links between diet and the gut microbiome suggest key roles for various macronutrients, including lipids, yet how individual classes of dietary lipids interact with the microbiome remains largely unknown. Sphingolipids are bioactive components of most foods and are also produced by prominent gut microbes. This makes sphingolipids intriguing candidates for shaping diet-microbiome interactions.
Deletion of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 in myeloid cells worsens hepatic steatosis after a high-fat dietRecent studies have highlighted an important role for lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) in controlling the PUFA composition of cell membranes in the liver and intestine. In these organs, LPCAT3 critically supports cell-membrane-associated processes such as lipid absorption or lipoprotein secretion. However, the role of LPCAT3 in macrophages remains controversial. Here, we investigated LPCAT3's role in macrophages both in vitro and in vivo in mice with atherosclerosis and obesity.