Regular Research Articles
- In light of the importance of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in mammalian pathophysiology, a nonenzymatic route that might form these monoepoxides in cells is of significant interest. In the late 1970s, a simple system of arranging linoleic acid molecules on a monolayer on silica was devised and shown to yield monoepoxides as the main autoxidation products. Here, we investigated this system with arachidonic acid and characterized the primary products. By the early stages of autoxidation (∼10% conversion of arachidonic acid), the major products detected by LC-MS and HPLC-UV were the 14,15-, 11,12-, and 8,9-EETs, with the 5,6-EET mainly represented as the 5-δ-lactone-6-hydroxyeicosatrienoate as established by 1H-NMR.
- A proposed beneficial impact of highly unsaturated “fish oil” fatty acids is their conversion by lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes to specialized proresolving lipid mediators, including 12/15-LOX products from EPA and DHA. The transformations of DHA include formation of docosatrienes, named for the distinctive conjugated triene of the double bonds. To further the understanding of biosynthetic pathways and mechanisms, herein we meld together biosynthesis and NMR characterization of the unstable leukotriene A (LTA)-related epoxide intermediates formed by recombinant human 15-LOX-1, along with identification of the stable enzymatic products, and extend the findings into the 12/15-LOX metabolism in resident murine peritoneal macrophages.
- A complex assembly of lipids including fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides is vital to the integrity of the mammalian epidermal barrier. The formation of this barrier requires oxidation of the substrate fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), which is initiated by the enzyme 12R-lipoxygenase (LOX). In the epidermis, unoxidized LA is primarily found in long-chain acylceramides termed esterified omega-hydroxy sphingosine (EOS)/phytosphingosine/hydroxysphingosine (collectively EOx). The precise structure and localization of LOX-oxidized EOx in the human epidermis is unknown, as is their regulation in diseases such as psoriasis, one of the most common inflammatory diseases affecting the skin.