Regular Research Articles
Plasma FA composition in familial LCAT deficiency indicates SOAT2-derived cholesteryl ester formation in humansMutations in the LCAT gene cause familial LCAT deficiency (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man ID: #245900), a very rare metabolic disorder. LCAT is the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol in plasma, whereas sterol O-acyltransferases 1 and 2 are the enzymes esterifying cellular cholesterol in cells. Despite the complete lack of LCAT activity, patients with familial LCAT deficiency exhibit circulating cholesteryl esters (CEs) in apoB-containing lipoproteins. To analyze the origin of these CEs, we investigated 24 carriers of LCAT deficiency in this observational study.
The SARS-CoV2 envelope differs from host cells, exposes procoagulant lipids, and is disrupted in vivo by oral rinsesThe lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.
Apolipoprotein F concentration, activity, and the properties of LDL controlling ApoF activation in hyperlipidemic plasmaApolipoprotein F (ApoF) modulates lipoprotein metabolism by selectively inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity on LDL. This ApoF activity requires that it is bound to LDL. How hyperlipidemia alters total plasma ApoF and its binding to LDL are poorly understood. In this study, total plasma ApoF and LDL-bound ApoF were quantified by ELISA (n = 200). Plasma ApoF was increased 31% in hypercholesterolemic plasma but decreased 20% in hypertriglyceridemia. However, in donors with combined hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, the elevated triglyceride ameliorated the rise in ApoF caused by hypercholesterolemia alone.
The lipid substrate preference of CETP controls the biochemical properties of HDL in fat/cholesterol-fed hamstersCholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) modulates lipoprotein metabolism by transferring cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TG) between lipoproteins. However, differences in the way CETP functions exist across species. Unlike human CETP, hamster CETP prefers TG over CE as a substrate, raising questions regarding how substrate preference may impact lipoprotein metabolism. To understand how altering the CE versus TG substrate specificity of CETP might impact lipoprotein metabolism in humans, we modified CETP expression in fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters, which have a human-like lipoprotein profile.
Vasculoprotective properties of plasma lipoproteins from brown bears (Ursus arctos)Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels are twice as high in hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) than healthy humans. Yet, bears display no signs of early stage atherosclerosis development when adult. To explore this apparent paradox, we analyzed plasma lipoproteins from the same 10 bears in winter (hibernation) and summer using size exclusion chromatography, ultracentrifugation, and electrophoresis. LDL binding to arterial proteoglycans (PGs) and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) were also evaluated.
The maternal blood lipidome is indicative of the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsiaPreeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections.