Regular Research Articles
Identification and characterization of LPLAT7 as an sn-1-specific lysophospholipid acyltransferaseThe main fatty acids at the sn-1 position of phospholipids (PLs) are saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) and are constantly replaced, like unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the replacement of fatty acids at the sn-1 position, i.e., the sn-1 remodeling. Previously, we established a method to evaluate the incorporation of fatty acids into the sn-1 position of lysophospholipids (lyso-PLs).
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Isomeric lipid signatures reveal compartmentalized fatty acid metabolism in cancerThe cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
The SARS-CoV2 envelope differs from host cells, exposes procoagulant lipids, and is disrupted in vivo by oral rinsesThe lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.
Intravital lipid droplet labeling and imaging reveals the phenotypes and functions of individual macrophages in vivoMacrophages play pivotal roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. However, the reactivation of macrophages toward proinflammatory states correlates with a plethora of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration, and bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes. The lack of methods to reveal macrophage phenotype and function in vivo impedes the translational research of these diseases. Here, we found that proinflammatory macrophages accumulate intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) relative to resting or noninflammatory macrophages both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that LD accumulation serves as a structural biomarker for macrophage phenotyping.
Lipid remodeling in response to methionine stress in MDA-MBA-468 triple-negative breast cancer cellsMethionine (Met) is an essential amino acid and critical precursor to the cellular methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Unlike nontransformed cells, cancer cells have a unique metabolic requirement for Met and are unable to proliferate in growth media where Met is replaced with its metabolic precursor, homocysteine. This metabolic vulnerability is common among cancer cells regardless of tissue origin and is known as “methionine dependence”, “methionine stress sensitivity”, or the Hoffman effect. The response of lipids to Met stress, however, is not well-understood.
Endothelial ether lipids link the vasculature to blood pressure, behavior, and neurodegenerationVascular disease contributes to neurodegeneration, which is associated with decreased blood pressure in older humans. Plasmalogens, ether phospholipids produced by peroxisomes, are decreased in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanistic links between ether phospholipids, blood pressure, and neurodegeneration are not fully understood. Here, we show that endothelium-derived ether phospholipids affect blood pressure, behavior, and neurodegeneration in mice.
Differential contributions of choline phosphotransferases CPT1 and CEPT1 to the biosynthesis of choline phospholipidsCholine phospholipids (PLs) such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine are important components for cell membranes and also serve as a source of several lipid mediators. These lipids are biosynthesized in mammals in the final step of the CDP-choline pathway by the choline phosphotransferases choline phosphotransferase 1 (CPT1) and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1). However, the contributions of these enzymes to the de novo biosynthesis of lipids remain unknown.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease stratification by liver lipidomicsNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including nonsteatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (nonalcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors.
Platelets induce free and phospholipid-esterified 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid generation in colon cancer cells by delivering 12-lipoxygenasePlatelets promote tumor metastasis by inducing promalignant phenotypes in cancer cells and directly contributing to cancer-related thrombotic complications. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, which confers high-grade malignancy. 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) generated by platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is considered a key modulator of cancer metastasis through unknown mechanisms. In platelets, 12-HETE can be esterified into plasma membrane phospholipids (PLs), which drive thrombosis.
The maternal blood lipidome is indicative of the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsiaPreeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections.
Vitamin D deficiency promotes accumulation of bioactive lipids and increased endocannabinoid tone in zebrafishVitamin D is well known for its traditional role in bone mineral homeostasis; however, recent evidence suggests that vitamin D also plays a significant role in metabolic control. This study served to investigate putative linkages between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and metabolic disruption of bioactive lipids by MS imaging. Our approach employed infrared-matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging for lipid metabolite profiling in 6-month-old zebrafish fed either a VDD or a vitamin D-sufficient (VDS) diet.
Amodiaquine promotes testosterone production and de novo synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides in Leydig cellsTestosterone is a hormone essential for male reproductive function. It is produced primarily by Leydig cells in the testicle through activation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and a series of steroidogenic enzymes, including a cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (cytochome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1), 17α-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. These steroidogenic enzymes are mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, and their expression is increased by the nuclear receptor 4A1.
Hepatic deletion of Mboat7 (LPIAT1) causes activation of SREBP-1c and fatty liverGenetic variants that increase the risk of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis have recently been identified in the proximity of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7 (MBOAT7). To elucidate the link between these variants and fatty liver disease, we characterized Mboat7 liver-specific KO mice (Mboat7 LSKO). Chow-fed Mboat7 LSKO mice developed fatty livers and associated liver injury. Lipidomic analysis of liver using MS revealed a pronounced reduction in 20-carbon PUFA content in phosphatidylinositols (PIs) but not in other phospholipids.