Regular Research Articles
Gene networks and pathways for plasma lipid traits via multitissue multiomics systems analysisGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated ∼380 genetic loci for plasma lipid regulation. However, these loci only explain 17–27% of the trait variance, and a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms has not been achieved. In this study, we utilized an integrative genomics approach leveraging diverse genomic data from human populations to investigate whether genetic variants associated with various plasma lipid traits, namely, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL), and triglycerides, from GWASs were concentrated on specific parts of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks.
Distinct patterns of apolipoprotein C-I, C-II, and C-III isoforms are associated with markers of Alzheimer’s diseaseApolipoproteins C-I, C-II, and C-III interact with ApoE to regulate lipoprotein metabolism and contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. In plasma, apoC-I and C-II exist as truncated isoforms, while apoC-III exhibits multiple glycoforms. This study aimed to 1) delineate apoC-I, C-II, and C-III isoform profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in a cohort of nondemented older individuals (n = 61), and 2) examine the effect of APOE4 on these isoforms and their correlation with CSF Aβ42, a surrogate of brain amyloid accumulation.
Structure dynamics of ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants in small HDL increase their ability to mediate cholesterol effluxApolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is essential for the transportation of cholesterol between peripheral tissues and the liver. However, specific mutations in ApoA-I of HDLs are responsible for a late-onset systemic amyloidosis, the pathological accumulation of protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Carriers of these mutations do not exhibit increased cardiovascular disease risk despite displaying reduced levels of ApoA-I/HDL cholesterol. To explain this paradox, we show that the HDL particle profiles of patients carrying either L75P or L174S ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants show a higher relative abundance of the 8.4-nm versus 9.6-nm particles and that serum from patients, as well as reconstituted 8.4- and 9.6-nm HDL particles (rHDL), possess increased capacity to catalyze cholesterol efflux from macrophages.