Regular Research Articles
Associations between insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and lipoprotein kinetics in menLow circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) have been associated with dyslipidemia, notably with high triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the determinants by which IGFBP-2 influences lipoprotein metabolism, especially that of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the relationships between IGFBP-2 levels and lipoprotein production and catabolism in human subjects. Fasting IGFBP-2 concentrations were measured in the plasma of 219 men pooled from previous lipoprotein kinetics studies.
The small GTPase RAB10 regulates endosomal recycling of the LDL receptor and transferrin receptor in hepatocytesThe low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mediates the hepatic uptake of circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), a process that modulates the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We recently identified RAB10, encoding a small GTPase, as a positive regulator of LDL uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH7) in a genome-wide CRISPR screen, though the underlying molecular mechanism for this effect was unknown. We now report that RAB10 regulates hepatocyte LDL uptake by promoting the recycling of endocytosed LDLR from RAB11-positive endosomes to the plasma membrane.
Plasma FA composition in familial LCAT deficiency indicates SOAT2-derived cholesteryl ester formation in humansMutations in the LCAT gene cause familial LCAT deficiency (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man ID: #245900), a very rare metabolic disorder. LCAT is the only enzyme able to esterify cholesterol in plasma, whereas sterol O-acyltransferases 1 and 2 are the enzymes esterifying cellular cholesterol in cells. Despite the complete lack of LCAT activity, patients with familial LCAT deficiency exhibit circulating cholesteryl esters (CEs) in apoB-containing lipoproteins. To analyze the origin of these CEs, we investigated 24 carriers of LCAT deficiency in this observational study.
Whole-exome sequencing reveals damaging gene variants associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemiaLow levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with an elevated risk of arteriosclerotic coronary heart disease. Heritability of HDL-C levels is high. In this research discovery study, we used whole-exome sequencing to identify damaging gene variants that may play significant roles in determining HDL-C levels. We studied 204 individuals with a mean HDL-C level of 27.8 ± 6.4 mg/dl (range: 4–36 mg/dl). Data were analyzed by statistical gene burden testing and by filtering against candidate gene lists.
Apolipoprotein A-V is a potential target for treating coronary artery disease: evidence from genetic and metabolomic analysesTriglyceride (TG)-lowering LPL variants in combination with genetic LDL-C-lowering variants are associated with reduced risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Genetic variation in the APOA5 gene encoding apolipoprotein A-V also strongly affects TG levels, but the potential clinical impact and underlying mechanisms are yet to be resolved. Here, we aimed to study the effects of APOA5 genetic variation on CAD risk and plasma lipoproteins through factorial genetic association analyses. Using data from 309,780 European-ancestry participants from the UK Biobank, we evaluated the effects of lower TG levels as a result of genetic variation in APOA5 and/or LPL on CAD risk with or without a background of reduced LDL-C.
Apolipoprotein F concentration, activity, and the properties of LDL controlling ApoF activation in hyperlipidemic plasmaApolipoprotein F (ApoF) modulates lipoprotein metabolism by selectively inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity on LDL. This ApoF activity requires that it is bound to LDL. How hyperlipidemia alters total plasma ApoF and its binding to LDL are poorly understood. In this study, total plasma ApoF and LDL-bound ApoF were quantified by ELISA (n = 200). Plasma ApoF was increased 31% in hypercholesterolemic plasma but decreased 20% in hypertriglyceridemia. However, in donors with combined hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, the elevated triglyceride ameliorated the rise in ApoF caused by hypercholesterolemia alone.
Apolipoprotein E content of VLDL limits LPL-mediated triglyceride hydrolysisHigh levels of circulating triglycerides (TGs), or hypertriglyceridemia, are key components of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and CVD. As TGs are carried by lipoproteins in plasma, hypertriglyceridemia can result from overproduction or lack of clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) such as VLDLs. The primary driver of TRL clearance is TG hydrolysis mediated by LPL. LPL is regulated by numerous TRL protein components, including the cofactor apolipoprotein C-II, but it is not clear how their effects combine to impact TRL hydrolysis across individuals.
Generation and validation of a conditional knockout mouse model for desmosterolosisThe enzyme 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24, EC 220.127.116.11) catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol and is obligatory for post-squalene cholesterol synthesis. Genetic loss of this enzyme results in desmosterolosis (MIM # 602398 ), a rare disease that presents with multiple congenital anomalies, features of which overlap with subjects with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (another post-squalene cholesterol disorder). Global knockout (KO) of Dhcr24 in mice recapitulates the biochemical phenotype, but pups die within 24 h from a lethal dermopathy, limiting its utility as a disease model.
Vasculoprotective properties of plasma lipoproteins from brown bears (Ursus arctos)Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels are twice as high in hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) than healthy humans. Yet, bears display no signs of early stage atherosclerosis development when adult. To explore this apparent paradox, we analyzed plasma lipoproteins from the same 10 bears in winter (hibernation) and summer using size exclusion chromatography, ultracentrifugation, and electrophoresis. LDL binding to arterial proteoglycans (PGs) and plasma cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) were also evaluated.
Associations of HDL metrics with coronary artery calcium score and density among women traversing menopauseThe cardioprotective association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may vary by menopause stage or estradiol level. We tested whether associations of comprehensive HDL metrics (HDL subclasses, phospholipid and triglyceride content, and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity [HDL-CEC]) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and density vary by menopause stage or estradiol level in women transitioning through menopause. Participants (N = 294; mean age [SD]: 51.3 [2.9]) had data on HDL metrics and CAC measures at one or two time points during the menopause transition.
Apolipoprotein A-I modulates HDL particle size in the absence of apolipoprotein A-IIHuman high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a complex mixture of structurally related nanoparticles that perform distinct physiological functions. We previously showed that human HDL containing apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) but not apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2), designated LpA-I, is composed primarily of two discretely sized populations. Here, we isolated these particles directly from human plasma by antibody affinity chromatography, separated them by high-resolution size-exclusion chromatography and performed a deep molecular characterization of each species.
Inhibition of chylomicron assembly leads to dissociation of hepatic steatosis from inflammation and fibrosisRegulating dietary fat absorption may impact progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we asked if inducible inhibition of chylomicron assembly, as observed in intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein knockout mice (Mttp-IKO), could retard NAFLD progression and/or reverse established fibrosis in two dietary models. Mttp-IKO mice fed a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet exhibited reduced hepatic TGs, inflammation, and fibrosis, associated with reduced oxidative stress and downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways.
Human cholesteryl ester transfer protein lacks lipopolysaccharide transfer activity, but worsens inflammation and sepsis outcomes in miceBacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs or endotoxins) can bind most proteins of the lipid transfer/LPS-binding protein (LT/LBP) family in host organisms. The LPS-bound LT/LBP proteins then trigger either an LPS-induced proinflammatory cascade or LPS binding to lipoproteins that are involved in endotoxin inactivation and detoxification. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is an LT/LBP member, but its impact on LPS metabolism and sepsis outcome is unclear. Here, we performed fluorescent LPS transfer assays to assess the ability of CETP to bind and transfer LPS.