Regular Research Articles
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Isomeric lipid signatures reveal compartmentalized fatty acid metabolism in cancerThe cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
Plin2 deletion increases cholesteryl ester lipid droplet content and disturbs cholesterol balance in adrenal cortexCholesteryl esters (CEs) are the water-insoluble transport and storage form of cholesterol. Steroidogenic cells primarily store CEs in cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD) organelles, as contrasted to the majority of mammalian cell types that predominantly store triacylglycerol (TAG) in LDs. The LD-binding Plin2 binds to both CE- and TAG-rich LDs, and although Plin2 is known to regulate degradation of TAG-rich LDs, its role for regulation of CE-rich LDs is unclear. To investigate the role of Plin2 in the regulation of CE-rich LDs, we performed histological and molecular characterization of adrenal glands from Plin2+/+ and Plin2−/− mice.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease stratification by liver lipidomicsNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including nonsteatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (nonalcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors.
The maternal blood lipidome is indicative of the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsiaPreeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections.
Hepatic lysosomal acid lipase overexpression worsens hepatic inflammation in mice fed a Western dietNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes. NAFLD development and progression is associated with an increase in hepatic cholesterol levels and decreased autophagy and lipophagy flux. Previous studies have shown that the expression of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), encoded by the gene LIPA, which can hydrolyze both triglyceride and cholesteryl esters, is inversely correlated with the severity of NAFLD. In addition, ablation of LAL activity results in profound NAFLD.
Lipid signature of advanced human carotid atherosclerosis assessed by mass spectrometry imagingCarotid atherosclerosis is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, one of the main causes of mortality and disability worldwide. The disease is characterized by plaques, heterogeneous deposits of lipids, and necrotic debris in the vascular wall, which grow gradually and may remain asymptomatic for decades. However, at some point a plaque can evolve to a high-risk plaque phenotype, which may trigger a cerebrovascular event. Lipids play a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, but the nature of their involvement is not fully understood.