Regular Research Articles
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Hormone-sensitive lipase is localized at synapses and is necessary for normal memory functioning in miceHormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is mainly present in adipose tissue where it hydrolyzes diacylglycerol. Although expression of HSL has also been reported in the brain, its presence in different cellular compartments is uncertain, and its role in regulating brain lipid metabolism remains hitherto unexplored. We hypothesized that HSL might play a role in regulating the availability of bioactive lipids necessary for neuronal function and therefore investigated whether dampening HSL activity could lead to brain dysfunction.
The maternal blood lipidome is indicative of the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsiaPreeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections.
Lipid signature of advanced human carotid atherosclerosis assessed by mass spectrometry imagingCarotid atherosclerosis is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, one of the main causes of mortality and disability worldwide. The disease is characterized by plaques, heterogeneous deposits of lipids, and necrotic debris in the vascular wall, which grow gradually and may remain asymptomatic for decades. However, at some point a plaque can evolve to a high-risk plaque phenotype, which may trigger a cerebrovascular event. Lipids play a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, but the nature of their involvement is not fully understood.