Regular Research Articles
Liposomes trigger bone marrow niche macrophage “foam” cell formation and affect hematopoiesis in miceLiposomes are the most widely used nanocarrier platform for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, and a number of liposomes have been approved for use in clinical practice. After systemic administration, most liposomes are cleared by macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as the liver and bone marrow (BM). However, the majority of studies have focused on investigating the therapeutic results of liposomal drugs, and too few studies have evaluated the potential side effects of empty nanocarriers on the functions of macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system.
Inhibition of MAP4K4 signaling initiates metabolic reprogramming to protect hepatocytes from lipotoxic damageThe primary hepatic consequence of obesity is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), affecting about 25% of the global adult population. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD characterized by liver lipid accumulation, inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning, with a different degree of hepatic fibrosis. In the light of rapidly increasing prevalence of NAFLD and NASH, there is an urgent need for improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. The aim of this study was to decipher the possible role of STE20-type kinase MAP4K4 in the regulation of hepatocellular lipotoxicity and susceptibility to NAFLD.
Adaptations of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte lipidome to defective ether lipid catabolism upon Agmo knockdownLittle is known about the physiological role of alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO), the only enzyme capable of cleaving the 1-O-alkyl ether bond of ether lipids. Expression and enzymatic activity of this enzyme can be detected in a variety of tissues including adipose tissue. This labile lipolytic membrane-bound protein uses tetrahydrobiopterin as a cofactor, and mice with reduced tetrahydrobiopterin levels have alterations in body fat distribution and blood lipid concentrations. In addition, manipulation of AGMO in macrophages led to significant changes in the cellular lipidome, and alkylglycerolipids, the preferred substrates of AGMO, were shown to accumulate in mature adipocytes.
Isomeric lipid signatures reveal compartmentalized fatty acid metabolism in cancerThe cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
Hormone-sensitive lipase is localized at synapses and is necessary for normal memory functioning in miceHormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is mainly present in adipose tissue where it hydrolyzes diacylglycerol. Although expression of HSL has also been reported in the brain, its presence in different cellular compartments is uncertain, and its role in regulating brain lipid metabolism remains hitherto unexplored. We hypothesized that HSL might play a role in regulating the availability of bioactive lipids necessary for neuronal function and therefore investigated whether dampening HSL activity could lead to brain dysfunction.
Hormone-sensitive lipase protects adipose triglyceride lipase-deficient mice from lethal lipotoxic cardiomyopathyLipid droplets (LDs) are multifunctional organelles that regulate energy storage and cellular homeostasis. The first step of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in LDs is catalyzed by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), deficiency of which results in lethal cardiac steatosis. Although hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) functions as a diacylglycerol lipase in the heart, we hypothesized that activation of HSL might compensate for ATGL deficiency. To test this hypothesis, we crossed ATGL-KO (AKO) mice and cardiac-specific HSL-overexpressing mice (cHSL) to establish homozygous AKO mice and AKO mice with cardiac-specific HSL overexpression (AKO+cHSL).
Impact of pasteurization on the self-assembly of human milk lipids during digestionHuman milk is critical for the survival and development of infants. This source of nutrition contains components that protect against infections while stimulating immune maturation. In cases where the mother's own milk is unavailable, pasteurized donor milk is the preferred option. Although pasteurization has been shown to have minimal impact on the lipid and FA composition before digestion, no correlation has been made between the impact of pasteurization on the FFA composition and the self-assembly of lipids during digestion, which could act as delivery mechanisms for poorly water-soluble components.
Lipid droplet-mitochondria coupling via perilipin 5 augments respiratory capacity but is dispensable for FA oxidationDisturbances in lipid homeostasis can cause mitochondrial dysfunction and lipotoxicity. Perilipin 5 (PLIN5) decorates intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) in oxidative tissues and controls triacylglycerol (TG) turnover via its interactions with adipose triglyceride lipase and the adipose triglyceride lipase coactivator, comparative gene identification-58. Furthermore, PLIN5 anchors mitochondria to the LD membrane via the outermost part of the carboxyl terminus. However, the role of this LD-mitochondria coupling (LDMC) in cellular energy catabolism is less established.