Regular Research Articles
ω-O-Acylceramides but not ω-hydroxy ceramides are required for healthy lamellar phase architecture of skin barrier lipidsEpidermal omega-O-acylceramides (ω-O-acylCers) are essential components of a competent skin barrier. These unusual sphingolipids with ultralong N-acyl chains contain linoleic acid esterified to the terminal hydroxyl of the N-acyl, the formation of which requires the transacylase activity of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1). In ichthyosis with dysfunctional PNPLA1, ω-O-acylCer levels are significantly decreased, and ω-hydroxylated Cers (ω-OHCers) accumulate. Here, we explore the role of the linoleate moiety in ω-O-acylCers in the assembly of the skin lipid barrier.
Carboxylesterase 2 proteins are efficient diglyceride and monoglyceride lipases possibly implicated in metabolic diseaseCarboxylesterase 2 (CES2/Ces2) proteins exert established roles in (pro)drug metabolism. Recently, human and murine CES2/Ces2c have been discovered as triglyceride (TG) hydrolases implicated in the development of obesity and fatty liver disease. The murine Ces2 family consists of seven homologous genes as opposed to a single CES2 gene in humans. However, the mechanistic role of Ces2 protein family members is not completely understood. In this study, we examined activities of all Ces2 members toward TGs, diglycerides (DGs), and monoglycerides (MGs) as the substrate.