Regular Research Articles
Obesity reprograms the pulmonary polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipidome, transcriptome, and gene-oxylipin networksObesity exacerbates inflammation upon lung injury; however, the mechanisms by which obesity primes pulmonary dysregulation prior to external injury are not well studied. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that obesity dysregulates pulmonary PUFA metabolism that is central to inflammation initiation and resolution. We first show that a high-fat diet (HFD) administered to C57BL/6J mice increased the relative abundance of pulmonary PUFA-containing triglycerides and the concentration of PUFA-derived oxylipins (particularly prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), independent of an increase in total pulmonary PUFAs, prior to onset of pulmonary inflammation.
Isomeric lipid signatures reveal compartmentalized fatty acid metabolism in cancerThe cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
Ceramide kinase regulates acute wound healing by suppressing 5-oxo-ETE biosynthesis and signaling via its receptor OXER1The sphingolipid, ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P), has been shown to promote the inflammatory phase and inhibit the proliferation and remodeling stages of wound repair via direct interaction with group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2, a regulator of eicosanoid biosynthesis that fine-tunes the behaviors of various cell types during wound healing. However, the anabolic enzyme responsible for the production of C1P that suppresses wound healing as well as bioactive eicosanoids and target receptors that drive enhanced wound remodeling have not been characterized.
High-fat diet activates liver iPLA2γ generating eicosanoids that mediate metabolic stressHigh-fat (HF) diet–induced obesity precipitates multiple metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, resulting in the initiation of cell death programs. Previously, we demonstrated murine germline knockout of calcium-independent phospholipase A2γ (iPLA2γ) prevented HF diet–induced weight gain, attenuated insulin resistance, and decreased mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening leading to alterations in bioenergetics.
EPA and DHA containing phospholipids have contrasting effects on membrane structureOmega-3 FAs EPA and DHA influence membrane fluidity, lipid rafts, and signal transduction. A clinical trial, Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl—Intervention Trial, demonstrated that high-dose EPA (4 g/d icosapent ethyl) reduced composite cardiovascular events in statin-treated high-risk patients. EPA benefits correlated with on-treatment levels, but similar trials using DHA-containing formulations did not show event reduction. We hypothesized that differences in clinical efficacy of various omega-3 FA preparations could result from differential effects on membrane structure.
Platelets induce free and phospholipid-esterified 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid generation in colon cancer cells by delivering 12-lipoxygenasePlatelets promote tumor metastasis by inducing promalignant phenotypes in cancer cells and directly contributing to cancer-related thrombotic complications. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, which confers high-grade malignancy. 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) generated by platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is considered a key modulator of cancer metastasis through unknown mechanisms. In platelets, 12-HETE can be esterified into plasma membrane phospholipids (PLs), which drive thrombosis.
Fatty acyl availability modulates cardiolipin composition and alters mitochondrial function in HeLa cellsThe molecular assembly of cells depends not only on the balance between anabolism and catabolism but to a large degree on the building blocks available in the environment. For cultured mammalian cells, this is largely determined by the composition of the applied growth medium. Here, we study the impact of lipids in the medium on mitochondrial membrane architecture and function by combining LC-MS/MS lipidomics and functional tests with lipid supplementation experiments in an otherwise serum-free and lipid-free cell culture model.
Omega-3 versus Omega-6 fatty acid availability is controlled by hydrophobic site geometries of phospholipase A2sHuman phospholipase A2s (PLA2) constitute a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 acyl-chain of glycerophospholipids, producing lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Each PLA2 enzyme type contributes to specific biological functions based on its expression, subcellular localization, and substrate specificity. Among the PLA2 superfamily, the cytosolic cPLA2 enzymes, calcium-independent iPLA2 enzymes, and secreted sPLA2 enzymes are implicated in many diseases, but a central issue is the preference for double-bond positions in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) occupying the sn-2 position of membrane phospholipids.
Hepatic deletion of Mboat7 (LPIAT1) causes activation of SREBP-1c and fatty liverGenetic variants that increase the risk of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis have recently been identified in the proximity of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7 (MBOAT7). To elucidate the link between these variants and fatty liver disease, we characterized Mboat7 liver-specific KO mice (Mboat7 LSKO). Chow-fed Mboat7 LSKO mice developed fatty livers and associated liver injury. Lipidomic analysis of liver using MS revealed a pronounced reduction in 20-carbon PUFA content in phosphatidylinositols (PIs) but not in other phospholipids.
Deletion of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 in myeloid cells worsens hepatic steatosis after a high-fat dietRecent studies have highlighted an important role for lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) in controlling the PUFA composition of cell membranes in the liver and intestine. In these organs, LPCAT3 critically supports cell-membrane-associated processes such as lipid absorption or lipoprotein secretion. However, the role of LPCAT3 in macrophages remains controversial. Here, we investigated LPCAT3's role in macrophages both in vitro and in vivo in mice with atherosclerosis and obesity.