Regular Research Articles
Individual and simultaneous treatment with antipsychotic aripiprazole and antidepressant trazodone inhibit sterol biosynthesis in the adult brainPolypharmacy, or the simultaneous use of multiple drugs to treat a single patient, is a common practice in psychiatry. Unfortunately, data on the health effects of commonly used combinations of medications are very limited. In this study, we therefore investigated the effects and interactions between two commonly prescribed psychotropic medications with sterol inhibiting side effects, trazodone (TRZ), an antidepressant, and aripiprazole (ARI), an antipsychotic. In vitro cell culture experiments revealed that both medications alone disrupted neuronal and astroglial sterol biosynthesis in dose-dependent manners.
The small GTPase RAB10 regulates endosomal recycling of the LDL receptor and transferrin receptor in hepatocytesThe low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mediates the hepatic uptake of circulating low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), a process that modulates the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We recently identified RAB10, encoding a small GTPase, as a positive regulator of LDL uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HuH7) in a genome-wide CRISPR screen, though the underlying molecular mechanism for this effect was unknown. We now report that RAB10 regulates hepatocyte LDL uptake by promoting the recycling of endocytosed LDLR from RAB11-positive endosomes to the plasma membrane.
Measurement of 7-dehydrocholesterol and cholesterol in hair can be used in the diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and cholesterol (CHOL) are biomarkers of Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), a congenital autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated 7-DHC level in patients. Hair samples have been shown to have great diagnostic and research value, which has long been neglected in the SLOS field. In this study, we sought to investigate the feasibility of using hair for SLOS diagnosis. In the presence of antioxidants (2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methylphenol and triphenylphosphine), hair samples were completely pulverized and extracted by micro-pulverized extraction in alkaline solution or in n-hexane.
ω-O-Acylceramides but not ω-hydroxy ceramides are required for healthy lamellar phase architecture of skin barrier lipidsEpidermal omega-O-acylceramides (ω-O-acylCers) are essential components of a competent skin barrier. These unusual sphingolipids with ultralong N-acyl chains contain linoleic acid esterified to the terminal hydroxyl of the N-acyl, the formation of which requires the transacylase activity of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1 (PNPLA1). In ichthyosis with dysfunctional PNPLA1, ω-O-acylCer levels are significantly decreased, and ω-hydroxylated Cers (ω-OHCers) accumulate. Here, we explore the role of the linoleate moiety in ω-O-acylCers in the assembly of the skin lipid barrier.
Chronic cholesterol depletion increases F-actin levels and induces cytoskeletal reorganization via a dual mechanismPrevious work from us and others has suggested that cholesterol is an important lipid in the context of the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton upon modulation of membrane cholesterol is rarely addressed in the literature. In this work, we explored the signaling crosstalk between cholesterol and the actin cytoskeleton by using a high-resolution confocal microscopic approach to quantitatively measure changes in F-actin content upon cholesterol depletion.
Gut microbiome-derived glycine lipids are diet-dependent modulators of hepatic injury and atherosclerosisOral and gut Bacteroidetes produce unique classes of serine-glycine lipodipeptides and glycine aminolipids that signal through host Toll-like receptor 2. These glycine lipids have also been detected in human arteries, but their effects on atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we sought to investigate the bioactivity of bacterial glycine lipids in mouse models of atherosclerosis. Lipid 654 (L654), a serine-glycine lipodipeptide species, was first tested in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr−/− model of atherosclerosis.
Cholesterol sulfate fluidizes the sterol fraction of the stratum corneum lipid phase and increases its permeabilityDesulfation of cholesterol sulfate (CholS) to cholesterol (Chol) is an important event in epidermal homeostasis and necessary for stratum corneum (SC) barrier function. The CholS/Chol ratio decreases during SC maturation but remains high in pathological conditions, such as X-linked ichthyosis, characterized by dry and scaly skin. The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the CholS/Chol molar ratio on the structure, dynamics, and permeability of SC lipid model mixtures. We synthesized deuterated CholS and investigated lipid models with specifically deuterated components using 2H solid-state NMR spectroscopy at temperatures from 25°C to 80°C.
Generation and validation of a conditional knockout mouse model for desmosterolosisThe enzyme 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24, EC 126.96.36.199) catalyzes the conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol and is obligatory for post-squalene cholesterol synthesis. Genetic loss of this enzyme results in desmosterolosis (MIM # 602398 ), a rare disease that presents with multiple congenital anomalies, features of which overlap with subjects with the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (another post-squalene cholesterol disorder). Global knockout (KO) of Dhcr24 in mice recapitulates the biochemical phenotype, but pups die within 24 h from a lethal dermopathy, limiting its utility as a disease model.
The ligand-bound state of a G protein-coupled receptor stabilizes the interaction of functional cholesterol moleculesCholesterol is a major component of mammalian plasma membranes that not only affects the physical properties of the lipid bilayer but also is the function of many membrane proteins including G protein-coupled receptors. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is involved in parturition and lactation of mammals and in their emotional and social behaviors. Cholesterol acts on OXTR as an allosteric modulator inducing a high-affinity state for orthosteric ligands through a molecular mechanism that has yet to be determined.
25-Hydroxycholesterol 3-sulfate is an endogenous ligand of DNA methyltransferases in hepatocytesThe oxysterol sulfate, 25-hydroxycholesterol 3-sulfate (25HC3S), has been shown to play an important role in lipid metabolism, inflammatory response, and cell survival. However, the mechanism(s) of its function in global regulation is unknown. The current study investigates the molecular mechanism by which 25HC3S functions as an endogenous epigenetic regulator. To study the effects of oxysterols/sterol sulfates on epigenetic modulators, 12 recombinant epigenetic enzymes were used to determine whether 25HC3S acts as their endogenous ligand.
Proteoglycan binding as proatherogenic function metric of apoB-containing lipoproteins and chronic kidney graft failureLipoprotein-proteoglycan binding is an early key event in atherosclerotic lesion formation and thus conceivably could play a major role in vasculopathy-driven chronic graft failure and cardiovascular mortality in renal transplant recipients. The present study investigated whether lipoprotein-proteoglycan binding susceptibility (LPBS) of apoB-containing lipoproteins and levels of the classical atherosclerosis biomarker LDL-C were associated with cardiovascular mortality (n = 130) and graft failure (n = 73) in 589 renal transplant recipients who were followed up from at least 1 year after transplantation for 9.5 years.
Evaluation of the available cholesterol concentration in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of mammalian cellsCholesterol is an essential component of the mammalian plasma membrane involved in diverse cellular processes. Our recent quantitative imaging analysis using ratiometric cholesterol sensors showed that the available cholesterol concentration in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (IPM) is low in unstimulated cells and increased in a stimulus-specific manner to trigger cell signaling events. However, the transbilayer distribution of cholesterol in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells remains controversial.
Monomeric bile acids modulate the ATPase activity of detergent-solubilized ABCB4/MDR3ABCB4, also called multidrug-resistant protein 3 (MDR3), is an ATP binding cassette transporter located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes that specifically translocates phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids from the cytoplasmic to the extracellular leaflet. Due to the harsh detergent effect of bile acids, PC lipids provided by ABCB4 are extracted into the bile. While it is well known that bile acids are the major extractor of PC lipids from the membrane into bile, it is unknown whether only PC lipid extraction is improved or whether bile acids also have a direct effect on ABCB4.
Shark liver oil supplementation enriches endogenous plasmalogens and reduces markers of dyslipidemia and inflammationPlasmalogens are membrane glycerophospholipids with diverse biological functions. Reduced plasmalogen levels have been observed in metabolic diseases; hence, increasing their levels might be beneficial in ameliorating these conditions. Shark liver oil (SLO) is a rich source of alkylglycerols that can be metabolized into plasmalogens. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of SLO supplementation on endogenous plasmalogen levels in individuals with features of metabolic disease. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, the participants (10 overweight or obese males) received 4-g Alkyrol® (purified SLO) or placebo (methylcellulose) per day for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week washout phase and were then crossed over to 3 weeks of the alternate placebo/Alkyrol® treatment.
Antisense oligonucleotide–mediated inhibition of angiopoietin-like protein 3 increases reverse cholesterol transport in miceSupported by an abundance of experimental and genetic evidence, angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. ANGPTL3 is primarily produced by the liver and is a potent modulator of plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Experimental models and subjects with loss-of-function Angptl3 mutations typically present with lower levels of HDL-C than noncarriers. The effect of ANGPTL3 on HDL-C is typically attributed to its function as an inhibitor of the enzyme endothelial lipase.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease stratification by liver lipidomicsNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including nonsteatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (nonalcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors.
HSP90 inhibitors reduce cholesterol storage in Niemann-Pick type C1 mutant fibroblastsNiemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by mutations of the NPC1 gene. More than 300 disease-associated mutations are reported in patients, resulting in abnormal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, glycosphingolipids, and other lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/Ly) of many cell types. Previously, we showed that treatment of many different NPC1 mutant fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors resulted in reduction of cholesterol storage, and we found that this was associated with enhanced exit of the NPC1 protein from the endoplasmic reticulum and delivery to LE/Ly.
Red blood cell triglycerides—a unique pool that incorporates plasma-free fatty acids and relates to metabolic healthMost research into red blood cell (RBC) lipids focuses on membrane phospholipids and their relationships to metabolic conditions and diet. Triglycerides (TGs) exist in most cells; the TG-fatty acids serve as readily available fuel for oxidative phosphorylation. Because RBCs lack mitochondria, they would not be expected to store fatty acids in TG. We followed up on a previous in vitro study that found FFA can be incorporated into RBC-TG by testing whether intravenously infused [U-13C]palmitate could be detected in RBC-TG.
Human cholesteryl ester transfer protein lacks lipopolysaccharide transfer activity, but worsens inflammation and sepsis outcomes in miceBacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs or endotoxins) can bind most proteins of the lipid transfer/LPS-binding protein (LT/LBP) family in host organisms. The LPS-bound LT/LBP proteins then trigger either an LPS-induced proinflammatory cascade or LPS binding to lipoproteins that are involved in endotoxin inactivation and detoxification. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is an LT/LBP member, but its impact on LPS metabolism and sepsis outcome is unclear. Here, we performed fluorescent LPS transfer assays to assess the ability of CETP to bind and transfer LPS.
Generation and validation of a conditional knockout mouse model for the study of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromeSmith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a developmental disorder (OMIM # 270400 ) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the Dhcr7 gene, which encodes the enzyme 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ7 reductase. SLOS patients present clinically with dysmorphology and neurological, behavioral, and cognitive defects, with characteristically elevated levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in all bodily tissues and fluids. Previous mouse models of SLOS have been hampered by postnatal lethality when Dhcr7 is knocked out globally, while a hypomorphic mouse model showed improvement in the biochemical phenotype with aging and did not manifest most other characteristic features of SLOS.