Regular Research Articles
ER Stress-Induced Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Phosphorylation Potentiates the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein ResponseThe unfolded protein response (UPR) is an elaborate signaling network that evolved to maintain proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (mt). These organelles are functionally and physically associated, and consequently, their stress responses are often intertwined. It is unclear how these two adaptive stress responses are coordinated during ER stress. The inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), a central ER stress sensor and proximal regulator of the UPRER, harbors dual kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) activities.
Liposomes trigger bone marrow niche macrophage “foam” cell formation and affect hematopoiesis in miceLiposomes are the most widely used nanocarrier platform for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, and a number of liposomes have been approved for use in clinical practice. After systemic administration, most liposomes are cleared by macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as the liver and bone marrow (BM). However, the majority of studies have focused on investigating the therapeutic results of liposomal drugs, and too few studies have evaluated the potential side effects of empty nanocarriers on the functions of macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system.
Inhibition of MAP4K4 signaling initiates metabolic reprogramming to protect hepatocytes from lipotoxic damageThe primary hepatic consequence of obesity is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), affecting about 25% of the global adult population. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of NAFLD characterized by liver lipid accumulation, inflammation, and hepatocyte ballooning, with a different degree of hepatic fibrosis. In the light of rapidly increasing prevalence of NAFLD and NASH, there is an urgent need for improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. The aim of this study was to decipher the possible role of STE20-type kinase MAP4K4 in the regulation of hepatocellular lipotoxicity and susceptibility to NAFLD.
Isomeric lipid signatures reveal compartmentalized fatty acid metabolism in cancerThe cellular energy and biomass demands of cancer drive a complex dynamic between uptake of extracellular FAs and their de novo synthesis. Given that oxidation of de novo synthesized FAs for energy would result in net-energy loss, there is an implication that FAs from these two sources must have distinct metabolic fates; however, hitherto, all FAs have been considered part of a common pool. To probe potential metabolic partitioning of cellular FAs, cancer cells were supplemented with stable isotope-labeled FAs.
Sortilin enhances secretion of apolipoprotein(a) through effects on apolipoprotein B secretion and promotes uptake of lipoprotein(a)Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent, causal risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp(a) is formed in or on hepatocytes from successive noncovalent and covalent interactions between apo(a) and apoB, although the subcellular location of these interactions and the nature of the apoB-containing particle involved remain unclear. Sortilin, encoded by the SORT1 gene, modulates apoB secretion and LDL clearance. We used a HepG2 cell model to study the secretion kinetics of apo(a) and apoB.
The SARS-CoV2 envelope differs from host cells, exposes procoagulant lipids, and is disrupted in vivo by oral rinsesThe lipid envelope of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an essential component of the virus; however, its molecular composition is undetermined. Addressing this knowledge gap could support the design of antiviral agents as well as further our understanding of viral-host protein interactions, infectivity, pathogenicity, and innate immune system clearance. Lipidomics revealed that the virus envelope comprised mainly phospholipids (PLs), with some cholesterol and sphingolipids, and with cholesterol/phospholipid ratio similar to lysosomes.
Hormone-sensitive lipase protects adipose triglyceride lipase-deficient mice from lethal lipotoxic cardiomyopathyLipid droplets (LDs) are multifunctional organelles that regulate energy storage and cellular homeostasis. The first step of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in LDs is catalyzed by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), deficiency of which results in lethal cardiac steatosis. Although hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) functions as a diacylglycerol lipase in the heart, we hypothesized that activation of HSL might compensate for ATGL deficiency. To test this hypothesis, we crossed ATGL-KO (AKO) mice and cardiac-specific HSL-overexpressing mice (cHSL) to establish homozygous AKO mice and AKO mice with cardiac-specific HSL overexpression (AKO+cHSL).
KIAA1363 affects retinyl ester turnover in cultured murine and human hepatic stellate cellsLarge quantities of vitamin A are stored as retinyl esters (REs) in specialized liver cells, the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). To date, the enzymes controlling RE degradation in HSCs are poorly understood. In this study, we identified KIAA1363 (also annotated as arylacetamide deacetylase 1 or neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1) as a novel RE hydrolase. We show that KIAA1363 is expressed in the liver, mainly in HSCs, and exhibits RE hydrolase activity at neutral pH. Accordingly, addition of the KIAA1363-specific inhibitor JW480 largely reduced RE hydrolase activity in lysates of cultured murine and human HSCs.
HSP90 inhibitors reduce cholesterol storage in Niemann-Pick type C1 mutant fibroblastsNiemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by mutations of the NPC1 gene. More than 300 disease-associated mutations are reported in patients, resulting in abnormal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, glycosphingolipids, and other lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/Ly) of many cell types. Previously, we showed that treatment of many different NPC1 mutant fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors resulted in reduction of cholesterol storage, and we found that this was associated with enhanced exit of the NPC1 protein from the endoplasmic reticulum and delivery to LE/Ly.
Crosstalk between ORMDL3, serine palmitoyltransferase, and 5-lipoxygenase in the sphingolipid and eicosanoid metabolic pathwaysLeukotrienes (LTs) and sphingolipids are critical lipid mediators participating in numerous cellular signal transduction events and developing various disorders, such as bronchial hyperactivity leading to asthma. Enzymatic reactions initiating production of these lipid mediators involve 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-mediated conversion of arachidonic acid to LTs and serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT)-mediated de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. Previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein ORM1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) inhibits the activity of SPT and subsequent sphingolipid synthesis.
Insights into the kinetics and dynamics of the furin-cleaved form of PCSK9Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates cholesterol metabolism by inducing the degradation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs). Plasma PCSK9 has 2 main molecular forms: a 62 kDa mature form (PCSK9_62) and a 55 kDa, furin-cleaved form (PCSK9_55). PCSK9_55 is considered less active than PCSK9_62 in degrading LDLRs. We aimed to identify the site of PCSK9_55 formation (intracellular vs. extracellular) and to further characterize the LDLR-degradative function of PCSK9_55 relative to PCSK9_62.