Regular Research Articles
1-Deoxysphingolipid synthesis compromises anchorage-independent growth and plasma membrane endocytosis in cancer cellsSerine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) predominantly incorporates serine and fatty acyl-CoAs into diverse sphingolipids (SLs) that serve as structural components of membranes and signaling molecules within or amongst cells. However, SPT also uses alanine as a substrate in the contexts of low serine availability, alanine accumulation, or disease-causing mutations in hereditary sensory neuropathy type I, resulting in the synthesis and accumulation of 1-deoxysphingolipids (deoxySLs). These species promote cytotoxicity in neurons and impact diverse cellular phenotypes, including suppression of anchorage-independent cancer cell growth.
Hepatocytes Deficient in Nuclear Envelope Protein Lamina-associated Polypeptide 1 are an Ideal Mammalian System to Study Intranuclear Lipid DropletsLipid droplets (LDs) are generally considered to be synthesized in the ER and utilized in the cytoplasm. However, LDs have been observed inside nuclei in some cells, although recent research on nuclear LDs has focused on cultured cell lines. To better understand nuclear LDs that occur in vivo, here we examined LDs in primary hepatocytes from mice following depletion of the nuclear envelope protein lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1). Microscopic image analysis showed that LAP1-depleted hepatocytes contain frequent nuclear LDs, which differ from cytoplasmic LDs in their associated proteins.
ER Stress-Induced Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase Phosphorylation Potentiates the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein ResponseThe unfolded protein response (UPR) is an elaborate signaling network that evolved to maintain proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria (mt). These organelles are functionally and physically associated, and consequently, their stress responses are often intertwined. It is unclear how these two adaptive stress responses are coordinated during ER stress. The inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1), a central ER stress sensor and proximal regulator of the UPRER, harbors dual kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) activities.
Characterization of long-chain fatty acid-linked bile acids: a major conjugation form of 3β-hydroxy bile acids in fecesAlthough most bile acids (BAs) in feces are present in noncovalent forms that can be extracted with ethanol, non-negligible amounts of saponifiable BAs are also present. It is a major concern that such saponifiable BAs are routinely omitted from fecal BA measurements. We compared the BA profiles of healthy stools that were obtained with/without alkaline hydrolysis and found that as much as 29.7% (2.1–67.7%) of total BAs were saponifiable. Specifically, alkaline treatment led to significant elevations of isodeoxycholic acid (isoDCA) and isolithocholic acid (isoLCA) concentrations, suggesting that considerable proportions of isoDCA and isoLCA were esterified.
RGMa promotes dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into a macrophage-like phenotype in vivo and in vitroRepulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that has been demonstrated to influence inflammatory-related diseases in addition to regulating neuronal differentiation and survival during brain development. However, any function or mechanism of RGMa in dedifferentiation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) during inflammatory-related atherosclerosis is poorly understood. In the current study, we found that RGMa is expressed in VSMCs-derived macrophage-like cells from the fibrous cap of type V atherosclerotic plaques and the neointima of ligated carotid artery in ApoE−/− mice.
Liposomes trigger bone marrow niche macrophage “foam” cell formation and affect hematopoiesis in miceLiposomes are the most widely used nanocarrier platform for the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents, and a number of liposomes have been approved for use in clinical practice. After systemic administration, most liposomes are cleared by macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as the liver and bone marrow (BM). However, the majority of studies have focused on investigating the therapeutic results of liposomal drugs, and too few studies have evaluated the potential side effects of empty nanocarriers on the functions of macrophages in the mononuclear phagocyte system.
PCSK9 is minimally associated with HDL but impairs the anti-atherosclerotic HDL effects on endothelial cell activationProprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates the cell-surface localization of LDL receptors in hepatocytes and is associated with LDL and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] uptake, reducing blood concentrations. However, the connection between PCSK9 and HDL is unclear. Here, we investigated the association of plasma PCSK9 with HDL subpopulations and examined the effects of PCSK9 on the atheroprotective function of HDL. We examined the association of PCSK9 with HDL in apoB-depleted plasma by ELISA, native PAGE, and immunoblotting.
Identification and characterization of LPLAT7 as an sn-1-specific lysophospholipid acyltransferaseThe main fatty acids at the sn-1 position of phospholipids (PLs) are saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1) and are constantly replaced, like unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-2 position. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the replacement of fatty acids at the sn-1 position, i.e., the sn-1 remodeling. Previously, we established a method to evaluate the incorporation of fatty acids into the sn-1 position of lysophospholipids (lyso-PLs).
Associations between insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and lipoprotein kinetics in menLow circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) have been associated with dyslipidemia, notably with high triglyceride (TG) levels. However, the determinants by which IGFBP-2 influences lipoprotein metabolism, especially that of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the relationships between IGFBP-2 levels and lipoprotein production and catabolism in human subjects. Fasting IGFBP-2 concentrations were measured in the plasma of 219 men pooled from previous lipoprotein kinetics studies.
Serum dihydroceramides correlate with insulin sensitivity in humans and decrease insulin sensitivity in vitroSerum ceramides, especially C16:0 and C18:0 species, are linked to CVD risk and insulin resistance, but details of this association are not well understood. We performed this study to quantify a broad range of serum sphingolipids in individuals spanning the physiologic range of insulin sensitivity and to determine if dihydroceramides cause insulin resistance in vitro. As expected, we found that serum triglycerides were significantly greater in individuals with obesity and T2D compared with athletes and lean individuals.
Acute retinol mobilization by retinol-binding protein 4 in mouse liver induces fibroblast growth factor 21 expressionHepatocytes secrete retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) into circulation, thereby mobilizing vitamin A from the liver to provide retinol for extrahepatic tissues. Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with elevated RBP4 levels in the blood. However, in a previous study, we observed that chronically increased RBP4 by forced Rbp4 expression in the liver does not impair glucose homeostasis in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of an acute mobilization of hepatic vitamin A stores by hepatic overexpression of RBP4 in mice.
Obesity reprograms the pulmonary polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipidome, transcriptome, and gene-oxylipin networksObesity exacerbates inflammation upon lung injury; however, the mechanisms by which obesity primes pulmonary dysregulation prior to external injury are not well studied. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that obesity dysregulates pulmonary PUFA metabolism that is central to inflammation initiation and resolution. We first show that a high-fat diet (HFD) administered to C57BL/6J mice increased the relative abundance of pulmonary PUFA-containing triglycerides and the concentration of PUFA-derived oxylipins (particularly prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids), independent of an increase in total pulmonary PUFAs, prior to onset of pulmonary inflammation.