Regular Research Articles
- Vitamin A is distributed within the body to support chromophore synthesis in the eyes and retinoid signaling in most other tissues. Two pathways exist for the delivery of vitamin A: the extrinsic pathway transports dietary vitamin A in lipoproteins from intestinal enterocytes to tissues, while the intrinsic pathway distributes vitamin A from hepatic stores bound to serum retinol binding protein (RBP). Previously, the intestine-specific homeodomain transcription factor (ISX) and the RBP receptor STRA6 were identified as gatekeepers of these pathways; however, it is not clear how mutations in the corresponding genes affect retinoid homeostasis.
- Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is mainly present in adipose tissue where it hydrolyzes diacylglycerol. Although expression of HSL has also been reported in the brain, its presence in different cellular compartments is uncertain, and its role in regulating brain lipid metabolism remains hitherto unexplored. We hypothesized that HSL might play a role in regulating the availability of bioactive lipids necessary for neuronal function and therefore investigated whether dampening HSL activity could lead to brain dysfunction.
- Oral and gut Bacteroidetes produce unique classes of serine-glycine lipodipeptides and glycine aminolipids that signal through host Toll-like receptor 2. These glycine lipids have also been detected in human arteries, but their effects on atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we sought to investigate the bioactivity of bacterial glycine lipids in mouse models of atherosclerosis. Lipid 654 (L654), a serine-glycine lipodipeptide species, was first tested in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed Ldlr−/− model of atherosclerosis.
- Large quantities of vitamin A are stored as retinyl esters (REs) in specialized liver cells, the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). To date, the enzymes controlling RE degradation in HSCs are poorly understood. In this study, we identified KIAA1363 (also annotated as arylacetamide deacetylase 1 or neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1) as a novel RE hydrolase. We show that KIAA1363 is expressed in the liver, mainly in HSCs, and exhibits RE hydrolase activity at neutral pH. Accordingly, addition of the KIAA1363-specific inhibitor JW480 largely reduced RE hydrolase activity in lysates of cultured murine and human HSCs.
- Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations of the NPC1 gene. While neurodegeneration is the most severe symptom, a large proportion of NPC1 patients also present with splenomegaly, which has been attributed to cholesterol and glycosphingolipid accumulation in late endosomes and lysosomes. However, recent data also reveal an increase in the inflammatory monocyte subset in the Npc1nih mouse model expressing an Npc1 null allele. We evaluated the contribution of hematopoietic cells to splenomegaly in NPC1 disease under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.
- The myelin sheath, which is wrapped around axons, is a lipid-enriched structure produced by mature oligodendrocytes. Disruption of the myelin sheath is observed in several neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. A crucial component of myelin is sphingomyelin, levels of which can be increased by ABCA8, a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. ABCA8 is highly expressed in the cerebellum, specifically in oligodendroglia. However, whether ABCA8 plays a role in myelination and mechanisms that would underlie this role remain unknown.
- High plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and low HDL-C levels are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Both plasma TG and HDL-C levels are regulated in part by the circulating inhibitor, angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3). ANGPTL3 inhibits the phospholipase, endothelial lipase (EL), which hydrolyzes the phospholipids of HDL, thus decreasing plasma HDL levels. ANGPTL3 also inhibits LPL, the lipase primarily responsible for the clearance of TGs from the circulation. Previous studies have shown that ANGPTL3 requires complex formation with the related ANGPTL protein, angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8), to efficiently inhibit LPL, but the role of ANGPTL8 in EL inhibition is not known.
- Leukotrienes (LTs) and sphingolipids are critical lipid mediators participating in numerous cellular signal transduction events and developing various disorders, such as bronchial hyperactivity leading to asthma. Enzymatic reactions initiating production of these lipid mediators involve 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-mediated conversion of arachidonic acid to LTs and serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT)-mediated de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. Previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein ORM1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) inhibits the activity of SPT and subsequent sphingolipid synthesis.
- Vitamin D is well known for its traditional role in bone mineral homeostasis; however, recent evidence suggests that vitamin D also plays a significant role in metabolic control. This study served to investigate putative linkages between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and metabolic disruption of bioactive lipids by MS imaging. Our approach employed infrared-matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging for lipid metabolite profiling in 6-month-old zebrafish fed either a VDD or a vitamin D-sufficient (VDS) diet.