Regular Research Articles
Shark liver oil supplementation enriches endogenous plasmalogens and reduces markers of dyslipidemia and inflammationPlasmalogens are membrane glycerophospholipids with diverse biological functions. Reduced plasmalogen levels have been observed in metabolic diseases; hence, increasing their levels might be beneficial in ameliorating these conditions. Shark liver oil (SLO) is a rich source of alkylglycerols that can be metabolized into plasmalogens. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of SLO supplementation on endogenous plasmalogen levels in individuals with features of metabolic disease. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, the participants (10 overweight or obese males) received 4-g Alkyrol® (purified SLO) or placebo (methylcellulose) per day for 3 weeks followed by a 3-week washout phase and were then crossed over to 3 weeks of the alternate placebo/Alkyrol® treatment.
Carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) does not contribute to cholesteryl ester hydrolysis in the liverThe liver is the central organ regulating cholesterol synthesis, storage, transport, and elimination. Mouse carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) and its human ortholog CES1 have been described to possess lipase activity and play roles in hepatic triacylglycerol metabolism and VLDL assembly. It has been proposed that Ces1d/CES1 might also catalyze cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolysis in the liver and thus be responsible for the hydrolysis of HDL-derived CE; this could contribute to the final step in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway, wherein cholesterol is secreted from the liver into bile and feces, either directly or after conversion to water-soluble bile salts.
Lipidomic and transcriptional analysis of the linoleoyl-omega-hydroxyceramide biosynthetic pathway in human psoriatic lesionsA complex assembly of lipids including fatty acids, cholesterol, and ceramides is vital to the integrity of the mammalian epidermal barrier. The formation of this barrier requires oxidation of the substrate fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA), which is initiated by the enzyme 12R-lipoxygenase (LOX). In the epidermis, unoxidized LA is primarily found in long-chain acylceramides termed esterified omega-hydroxy sphingosine (EOS)/phytosphingosine/hydroxysphingosine (collectively EOx). The precise structure and localization of LOX-oxidized EOx in the human epidermis is unknown, as is their regulation in diseases such as psoriasis, one of the most common inflammatory diseases affecting the skin.
PEGylated AdipoRon derivatives improve glucose and lipid metabolism under insulinopenic and high-fat diet conditionsThe pleiotropic actions of adiponectin in improving cell survival and metabolism have motivated the development of small-molecule therapeutic agents for treating diabetes and lipotoxicity. AdipoRon is a synthetic agonist of the adiponectin receptors, yet is limited by its poor solubility and bioavailability. In this work, we expand on the protective effects of AdipoRon in pancreatic β-cells and examine how structural modifications could affect the activity, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability of this small molecule.
PCSK9 is not secreted from mature differentiated intestinal cellsProprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) promotes lysosomal degradation of the LDL receptor and is a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism. After the liver, the small intestine is the second organ that highly expresses PCSK9. However, the small intestine's ability to secrete PCSK9 remains a matter of debate. While liver-specific PCSK9-deficient mice present no PCSK9 in systemic blood, human intestinal Caco-2 cells can actively secrete PCSK9. This raises the possibility for active intestinal secretion via the portal blood.
Associations of HDL metrics with coronary artery calcium score and density among women traversing menopauseThe cardioprotective association of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) may vary by menopause stage or estradiol level. We tested whether associations of comprehensive HDL metrics (HDL subclasses, phospholipid and triglyceride content, and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity [HDL-CEC]) with coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and density vary by menopause stage or estradiol level in women transitioning through menopause. Participants (N = 294; mean age [SD]: 51.3 [2.9]) had data on HDL metrics and CAC measures at one or two time points during the menopause transition.
Apolipoprotein A-I modulates HDL particle size in the absence of apolipoprotein A-IIHuman high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a complex mixture of structurally related nanoparticles that perform distinct physiological functions. We previously showed that human HDL containing apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) but not apolipoprotein A-II (APOA2), designated LpA-I, is composed primarily of two discretely sized populations. Here, we isolated these particles directly from human plasma by antibody affinity chromatography, separated them by high-resolution size-exclusion chromatography and performed a deep molecular characterization of each species.
Differential contributions of choline phosphotransferases CPT1 and CEPT1 to the biosynthesis of choline phospholipidsCholine phospholipids (PLs) such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and 1-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine are important components for cell membranes and also serve as a source of several lipid mediators. These lipids are biosynthesized in mammals in the final step of the CDP-choline pathway by the choline phosphotransferases choline phosphotransferase 1 (CPT1) and choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1). However, the contributions of these enzymes to the de novo biosynthesis of lipids remain unknown.
Antisense oligonucleotide–mediated inhibition of angiopoietin-like protein 3 increases reverse cholesterol transport in miceSupported by an abundance of experimental and genetic evidence, angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cardiovascular disease. ANGPTL3 is primarily produced by the liver and is a potent modulator of plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Experimental models and subjects with loss-of-function Angptl3 mutations typically present with lower levels of HDL-C than noncarriers. The effect of ANGPTL3 on HDL-C is typically attributed to its function as an inhibitor of the enzyme endothelial lipase.
The forkhead box transcription factor FoxP4 regulates thermogenic programs in adipocytesForkhead box transcription factors have been shown to be involved in various developmental and differentiation processes. In particular, members of the FoxP family have been previously characterized in depth for their participation in the regulation of lung and neuronal cell differentiation and T-cell development and function; however, their role in adipocyte functionality has not yet been investigated. Here, we report for the first time that Forkhead box P4 (FoxP4) is expressed at high levels in subcutaneous fat depots and mature thermogenic adipocytes.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease stratification by liver lipidomicsNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including nonsteatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (nonalcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors.
A novel compound heterozygous leptin receptor mutation causes more severe obesity than in Leprdb/db miceThe leptin receptor (Lepr) pathway is important for food intake regulation, energy expenditure, and body weight. Mutations in leptin and the Lepr have been shown to cause early-onset severe obesity in mice and humans. In studies with C57BL/6NCrl mice, we found a mouse with extreme obesity. To identify a putative spontaneous new form of monogenic obesity, we performed backcross studies with this mouse followed by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis and sequencing of the selected chromosomal QTL region.
EPA and DHA containing phospholipids have contrasting effects on membrane structureOmega-3 FAs EPA and DHA influence membrane fluidity, lipid rafts, and signal transduction. A clinical trial, Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl—Intervention Trial, demonstrated that high-dose EPA (4 g/d icosapent ethyl) reduced composite cardiovascular events in statin-treated high-risk patients. EPA benefits correlated with on-treatment levels, but similar trials using DHA-containing formulations did not show event reduction. We hypothesized that differences in clinical efficacy of various omega-3 FA preparations could result from differential effects on membrane structure.
Pregnancy is accompanied by larger high density lipoprotein particles and compositionally distinct subspeciesPregnancy is accompanied by significant physiological changes, which can impact the health and development of the fetus and mother. Pregnancy-induced changes in plasma lipoproteins are well documented, with modest to no impact observed on the generic measure of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, the impact of pregnancy on the concentration and composition of HDL subspecies has not been examined in depth. In this prospective study, we collected plasma from 24 nonpregnant and 19 pregnant women in their second trimester.
Distinct biological activities of isomers from several families of branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs)Branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are endogenous lipids with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Each FAHFA family consists of esters with different acyl chains and multiple isomers with branch points at different carbons. Some FAHFAs, including palmitic acid hydroxy stearic acids (PAHSAs), improve insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), insulin-stimulated glucose transport, and insulin action to suppress hepatic glucose production and reducing adipose tissue inflammation.
Platelets induce free and phospholipid-esterified 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid generation in colon cancer cells by delivering 12-lipoxygenasePlatelets promote tumor metastasis by inducing promalignant phenotypes in cancer cells and directly contributing to cancer-related thrombotic complications. Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells, which confers high-grade malignancy. 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) generated by platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is considered a key modulator of cancer metastasis through unknown mechanisms. In platelets, 12-HETE can be esterified into plasma membrane phospholipids (PLs), which drive thrombosis.
Fatty acyl availability modulates cardiolipin composition and alters mitochondrial function in HeLa cellsThe molecular assembly of cells depends not only on the balance between anabolism and catabolism but to a large degree on the building blocks available in the environment. For cultured mammalian cells, this is largely determined by the composition of the applied growth medium. Here, we study the impact of lipids in the medium on mitochondrial membrane architecture and function by combining LC-MS/MS lipidomics and functional tests with lipid supplementation experiments in an otherwise serum-free and lipid-free cell culture model.
Angiopoietin-like 3 inhibition of endothelial lipase is not modulated by angiopoietin-like 8High plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and low HDL-C levels are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Both plasma TG and HDL-C levels are regulated in part by the circulating inhibitor, angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3). ANGPTL3 inhibits the phospholipase, endothelial lipase (EL), which hydrolyzes the phospholipids of HDL, thus decreasing plasma HDL levels. ANGPTL3 also inhibits LPL, the lipase primarily responsible for the clearance of TGs from the circulation. Previous studies have shown that ANGPTL3 requires complex formation with the related ANGPTL protein, angiopoietin-like 8 (ANGPTL8), to efficiently inhibit LPL, but the role of ANGPTL8 in EL inhibition is not known.
Omega-3 versus Omega-6 fatty acid availability is controlled by hydrophobic site geometries of phospholipase A2sHuman phospholipase A2s (PLA2) constitute a superfamily of enzymes that hydrolyze the sn-2 acyl-chain of glycerophospholipids, producing lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Each PLA2 enzyme type contributes to specific biological functions based on its expression, subcellular localization, and substrate specificity. Among the PLA2 superfamily, the cytosolic cPLA2 enzymes, calcium-independent iPLA2 enzymes, and secreted sPLA2 enzymes are implicated in many diseases, but a central issue is the preference for double-bond positions in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) occupying the sn-2 position of membrane phospholipids.
HSP90 inhibitors reduce cholesterol storage in Niemann-Pick type C1 mutant fibroblastsNiemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by mutations of the NPC1 gene. More than 300 disease-associated mutations are reported in patients, resulting in abnormal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, glycosphingolipids, and other lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes (LE/Ly) of many cell types. Previously, we showed that treatment of many different NPC1 mutant fibroblasts with histone deacetylase inhibitors resulted in reduction of cholesterol storage, and we found that this was associated with enhanced exit of the NPC1 protein from the endoplasmic reticulum and delivery to LE/Ly.
CXCL5 secreted from macrophages during cold exposure mediates white adipose tissue browningAdipose tissue affects metabolic-related diseases because it consists of various cell types involved in fat metabolism and adipokine release. CXC ligand 5 (CXCL5) is a member of the CXC chemokine family and is highly expressed by macrophages in white adipose tissue (WAT). In this study, we generated and investigated the function of CXCL5 in knockout (KO) mice using CRISPR/Cas9. The male KO mice did not show significant phenotype differences in normal conditions. However, proteomic analysis revealed that many proteins involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation and mitochondrial localization were enriched in the inguinal WAT (iWAT) of Cxcl5 KO mice.
The maternal blood lipidome is indicative of the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsiaPreeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections.
Crosstalk between ORMDL3, serine palmitoyltransferase, and 5-lipoxygenase in the sphingolipid and eicosanoid metabolic pathwaysLeukotrienes (LTs) and sphingolipids are critical lipid mediators participating in numerous cellular signal transduction events and developing various disorders, such as bronchial hyperactivity leading to asthma. Enzymatic reactions initiating production of these lipid mediators involve 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)-mediated conversion of arachidonic acid to LTs and serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT)-mediated de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. Previous studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein ORM1-like protein 3 (ORMDL3) inhibits the activity of SPT and subsequent sphingolipid synthesis.
Metabolism of HSAN1- and T2DM-associated 1-deoxy-sphingolipids inhibits the migration of fibroblastsHereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) is a rare axonopathy, characterized by a progressive loss of sensation (pain, temperature, and vibration), neuropathic pain, and wound healing defects. HSAN1 is caused by several missense mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase long-chain base subunit 1 and serine palmitoyltransferase long-chain base subunit 2 of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase—the key enzyme for the synthesis of sphingolipids. The mutations change the substrate specificity of serine palmitoyltransferase, which then forms an atypical class of 1-deoxy-sphinglipids (1-deoxySLs).
Inhibition of chylomicron assembly leads to dissociation of hepatic steatosis from inflammation and fibrosisRegulating dietary fat absorption may impact progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we asked if inducible inhibition of chylomicron assembly, as observed in intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride (TG) transfer protein knockout mice (Mttp-IKO), could retard NAFLD progression and/or reverse established fibrosis in two dietary models. Mttp-IKO mice fed a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet exhibited reduced hepatic TGs, inflammation, and fibrosis, associated with reduced oxidative stress and downstream activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways.
ATP-binding cassette transporters mediate differential biosynthesis of glycosphingolipid speciesThe cytosolic-oriented glucosylceramide (GlcCer) synthase is enigmatic, requiring nascent GlcCer translocation to the luminal Golgi membrane to access glycosphingolipid (GSL) anabolic glycosyltransferases. The mechanism by which GlcCer is flipped remains unclear. To investigate the role of GlcCer-binding partners in this process, we previously made cleavable, biotinylated, photoreactive GlcCer analogs in which the reactive nitrene was closely apposed to the GlcCer head group, while maintaining a C16-acyl chain.
Red blood cell triglycerides—a unique pool that incorporates plasma-free fatty acids and relates to metabolic healthMost research into red blood cell (RBC) lipids focuses on membrane phospholipids and their relationships to metabolic conditions and diet. Triglycerides (TGs) exist in most cells; the TG-fatty acids serve as readily available fuel for oxidative phosphorylation. Because RBCs lack mitochondria, they would not be expected to store fatty acids in TG. We followed up on a previous in vitro study that found FFA can be incorporated into RBC-TG by testing whether intravenously infused [U-13C]palmitate could be detected in RBC-TG.
Hepatic lysosomal acid lipase overexpression worsens hepatic inflammation in mice fed a Western dietNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes. NAFLD development and progression is associated with an increase in hepatic cholesterol levels and decreased autophagy and lipophagy flux. Previous studies have shown that the expression of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), encoded by the gene LIPA, which can hydrolyze both triglyceride and cholesteryl esters, is inversely correlated with the severity of NAFLD. In addition, ablation of LAL activity results in profound NAFLD.
Low production of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids prevents hepatic steatosis in Cyp2c70−/− mice by reducing fat absorptionBile acids (BAs) play important roles in lipid homeostasis, and BA signaling pathways serve as therapeutic targets for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, we generated cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 70 (Cyp2c70−/−) mice with a human-like BA composition lacking mouse-/rat-specific muricholic acids to accelerate translation from mice to humans. We employed this model to assess the consequences of a human-like BA pool on diet-induced obesity and NAFLD development.
Altered HDL proteome predicts incident CVD in chronic kidney disease patientsPatients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for CVD. However, traditional lipid risk factors, including low HDL levels, cannot completely explain the increased risk. Altered HDL proteome is linked with both CVD and CKD, but the role of HDL proteins in incident CVD events in patients with CKD is unknown. In this prospective case-control study, we used targeted proteomics to quantify 31 HDL proteins in 92 subjects (46 incident new CVD and 46 one-to-one matched controls) at various stages of CKD.
Vitamin D deficiency promotes accumulation of bioactive lipids and increased endocannabinoid tone in zebrafishVitamin D is well known for its traditional role in bone mineral homeostasis; however, recent evidence suggests that vitamin D also plays a significant role in metabolic control. This study served to investigate putative linkages between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and metabolic disruption of bioactive lipids by MS imaging. Our approach employed infrared-matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging for lipid metabolite profiling in 6-month-old zebrafish fed either a VDD or a vitamin D-sufficient (VDS) diet.
Membrane cholesterol regulates TRPV4 function, cytoskeletal expression, and the cellular response to tensionDespite the association of cholesterol with debilitating pressure-related diseases such as glaucoma, heart disease, and diabetes, its role in mechanotransduction is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between mechanical strain, free membrane cholesterol, actin cytoskeleton, and the stretch-activated transient receptor potential vanilloid isoform 4 (TRPV4) channel in human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Physiological levels of cyclic stretch resulted in time-dependent decreases in membrane cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine ratio and upregulation of stress fibers.
Amodiaquine promotes testosterone production and de novo synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides in Leydig cellsTestosterone is a hormone essential for male reproductive function. It is produced primarily by Leydig cells in the testicle through activation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and a series of steroidogenic enzymes, including a cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (cytochome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1), 17α-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. These steroidogenic enzymes are mainly regulated at the transcriptional level, and their expression is increased by the nuclear receptor 4A1.
Gene networks and pathways for plasma lipid traits via multitissue multiomics systems analysisGenome-wide association studies (GWASs) have implicated ∼380 genetic loci for plasma lipid regulation. However, these loci only explain 17–27% of the trait variance, and a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms has not been achieved. In this study, we utilized an integrative genomics approach leveraging diverse genomic data from human populations to investigate whether genetic variants associated with various plasma lipid traits, namely, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL), and triglycerides, from GWASs were concentrated on specific parts of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks.
Hepatic deletion of Mboat7 (LPIAT1) causes activation of SREBP-1c and fatty liverGenetic variants that increase the risk of fatty liver disease and cirrhosis have recently been identified in the proximity of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain-containing 7 (MBOAT7). To elucidate the link between these variants and fatty liver disease, we characterized Mboat7 liver-specific KO mice (Mboat7 LSKO). Chow-fed Mboat7 LSKO mice developed fatty livers and associated liver injury. Lipidomic analysis of liver using MS revealed a pronounced reduction in 20-carbon PUFA content in phosphatidylinositols (PIs) but not in other phospholipids.
Dietary sphinganine is selectively assimilated by members of the mammalian gut microbiomeFunctions of the gut microbiome have a growing number of implications for host metabolic health, with diet being one of the most significant influences on microbiome composition. Compelling links between diet and the gut microbiome suggest key roles for various macronutrients, including lipids, yet how individual classes of dietary lipids interact with the microbiome remains largely unknown. Sphingolipids are bioactive components of most foods and are also produced by prominent gut microbes. This makes sphingolipids intriguing candidates for shaping diet-microbiome interactions.
High density lipoprotein-associated miRNA is increased following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for severe obesityRoux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is one of the most commonly performed weight-loss procedures, but how severe obesity and RYGB affect circulating HDL-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. Here, we aim to investigate how HDL-associated miRNAs are regulated in severe obesity and how weight loss after RYGB surgery affects HDL-miRNAs. Plasma HDLs were isolated from patients with severe obesity (n = 53) before and 6 and 12 months after RYGB by immunoprecipitation using goat anti-human apoA-I microbeads.
Lipid signature of advanced human carotid atherosclerosis assessed by mass spectrometry imagingCarotid atherosclerosis is a risk factor for ischemic stroke, one of the main causes of mortality and disability worldwide. The disease is characterized by plaques, heterogeneous deposits of lipids, and necrotic debris in the vascular wall, which grow gradually and may remain asymptomatic for decades. However, at some point a plaque can evolve to a high-risk plaque phenotype, which may trigger a cerebrovascular event. Lipids play a key role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, but the nature of their involvement is not fully understood.
Human glucocerebrosidase mediates formation of xylosyl-cholesterol by β-xylosidase and transxylosidase reactionsDeficiency of glucocerebrosidase (GBA), a lysosomal β-glucosidase, causes Gaucher disease. The enzyme hydrolyzes β-glucosidic substrates and transglucosylates cholesterol to cholesterol-β-glucoside. Here we show that recombinant human GBA also cleaves β-xylosides and transxylosylates cholesterol. The xylosyl-cholesterol formed acts as an acceptor for the subsequent formation of di-xylosyl-cholesterol. Common mutant forms of GBA from patients with Gaucher disease with reduced β-glucosidase activity were similarly impaired in β-xylosidase, transglucosidase, and transxylosidase activities, except for a slightly reduced xylosidase/glucosidase activity ratio of N370S GBA and a slightly reduced transglucosylation/glucosidase activity ratio of D409H GBA.
Palmitoylation of acetylated tubulin and association with ceramide-rich platforms is critical for ciliogenesisMicrotubules are polymers composed of αβ-tubulin subunits that provide structure to cells and play a crucial role in in the development and function of neuronal processes and cilia, microtubule-driven extensions of the plasma membrane that have sensory (primary cilia) or motor (motile cilia) functions. To stabilize microtubules in neuronal processes and cilia, α tubulin is modified by the posttranslational addition of an acetyl group, or acetylation. We discovered that acetylated tubulin in microtubules interacts with the membrane sphingolipid, ceramide.
Perilipin 5 S155 phosphorylation by PKA is required for the control of hepatic lipid metabolism and glycemic controlPerilipin 5 (PLIN5) is a lipid-droplet-associated protein that coordinates intracellular lipolysis in highly oxidative tissues and is thought to regulate lipid metabolism in response to phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). We sought to identify PKA phosphorylation sites in PLIN5 and assess their functional relevance in cultured cells and the livers of mice. We detected phosphorylation on S155 and identified S155 as a functionally important site for lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylation-defective PLIN5 S155A in Plin5 null cells resulted in decreased rates of lipolysis and triglyceride-derived fatty acid oxidation.
Deletion of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 in myeloid cells worsens hepatic steatosis after a high-fat dietRecent studies have highlighted an important role for lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 (LPCAT3) in controlling the PUFA composition of cell membranes in the liver and intestine. In these organs, LPCAT3 critically supports cell-membrane-associated processes such as lipid absorption or lipoprotein secretion. However, the role of LPCAT3 in macrophages remains controversial. Here, we investigated LPCAT3's role in macrophages both in vitro and in vivo in mice with atherosclerosis and obesity.
Distinct patterns of apolipoprotein C-I, C-II, and C-III isoforms are associated with markers of Alzheimer’s diseaseApolipoproteins C-I, C-II, and C-III interact with ApoE to regulate lipoprotein metabolism and contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. In plasma, apoC-I and C-II exist as truncated isoforms, while apoC-III exhibits multiple glycoforms. This study aimed to 1) delineate apoC-I, C-II, and C-III isoform profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in a cohort of nondemented older individuals (n = 61), and 2) examine the effect of APOE4 on these isoforms and their correlation with CSF Aβ42, a surrogate of brain amyloid accumulation.
Human cholesteryl ester transfer protein lacks lipopolysaccharide transfer activity, but worsens inflammation and sepsis outcomes in miceBacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs or endotoxins) can bind most proteins of the lipid transfer/LPS-binding protein (LT/LBP) family in host organisms. The LPS-bound LT/LBP proteins then trigger either an LPS-induced proinflammatory cascade or LPS binding to lipoproteins that are involved in endotoxin inactivation and detoxification. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is an LT/LBP member, but its impact on LPS metabolism and sepsis outcome is unclear. Here, we performed fluorescent LPS transfer assays to assess the ability of CETP to bind and transfer LPS.
Mutation in the distal NPxY motif of LRP1 alleviates dietary cholesterol-induced dyslipidemia and tissue inflammationThe impairment of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) in numerous cell types is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Here, we compared the metabolic phenotype of C57BL/6J wild-type and LRP1 knock-in mice carrying an inactivating mutation in the distal NPxY motif after feeding a low-fat diet or high-fat (HF) diet with cholesterol supplementation (HFHC) or HF diet without cholesterol supplementation. In response to HF feeding, both groups developed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, increased adiposity, and adipose tissue inflammation and liver steatosis.
rHDL modeling and the anchoring mechanism of LCAT activationLecithin:cholesterol-acyl transferase (LCAT) plays a major role in cholesterol metabolism as it is the only extracellular enzyme able to esterify cholesterol. LCAT activity is required for lipoprotein remodeling and, most specifically, for the growth and maturation of HDLs. In fact, genetic alterations affecting LCAT functionality may cause a severe reduction in plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol with important clinical consequences. Although several hypotheses were formulated, the exact molecular recognition mechanism between LCAT and HDLs is still unknown.
Structure dynamics of ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants in small HDL increase their ability to mediate cholesterol effluxApolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) is essential for the transportation of cholesterol between peripheral tissues and the liver. However, specific mutations in ApoA-I of HDLs are responsible for a late-onset systemic amyloidosis, the pathological accumulation of protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Carriers of these mutations do not exhibit increased cardiovascular disease risk despite displaying reduced levels of ApoA-I/HDL cholesterol. To explain this paradox, we show that the HDL particle profiles of patients carrying either L75P or L174S ApoA-I amyloidogenic variants show a higher relative abundance of the 8.4-nm versus 9.6-nm particles and that serum from patients, as well as reconstituted 8.4- and 9.6-nm HDL particles (rHDL), possess increased capacity to catalyze cholesterol efflux from macrophages.
Insights into the kinetics and dynamics of the furin-cleaved form of PCSK9Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates cholesterol metabolism by inducing the degradation of hepatic low density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs). Plasma PCSK9 has 2 main molecular forms: a 62 kDa mature form (PCSK9_62) and a 55 kDa, furin-cleaved form (PCSK9_55). PCSK9_55 is considered less active than PCSK9_62 in degrading LDLRs. We aimed to identify the site of PCSK9_55 formation (intracellular vs. extracellular) and to further characterize the LDLR-degradative function of PCSK9_55 relative to PCSK9_62.
Generation and validation of a conditional knockout mouse model for the study of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndromeSmith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a developmental disorder (OMIM # 270400 ) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the Dhcr7 gene, which encodes the enzyme 3β-hydroxysterol-Δ7 reductase. SLOS patients present clinically with dysmorphology and neurological, behavioral, and cognitive defects, with characteristically elevated levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in all bodily tissues and fluids. Previous mouse models of SLOS have been hampered by postnatal lethality when Dhcr7 is knocked out globally, while a hypomorphic mouse model showed improvement in the biochemical phenotype with aging and did not manifest most other characteristic features of SLOS.
Adiponectin forms a complex with atherogenic LDL and inhibits its downstream effectsAdiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, has antiatherogenic and antidiabetic effects, but how it confers the atherogenic effects is not well known. To study the antiatherogenic mechanisms of adiponectin, we examined whether it interacts with atherogenic low density lipoprotein (LDL) to attenuate LDL's atherogenicity. L5, the most electronegative subfraction of LDL, induces atherogenic responses similarly to copper-oxidized LDL (oxLDL). Unlike the native LDL endocytosed via the LDL receptor, L5 and oxLDL are internalized by cells via the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1).