Determinants of body fat distribution in humans may provide insight about obesity-related health risksObesity increases the risks of developing cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and degrades quality of life, ultimately increasing the risk of death. However, not all forms of obesity are equally dangerous: some individuals, despite higher percentages of body fat, are at less risk for certain chronic obesity-related complications. Many open questions remain about why this occurs. Data suggest that the physical location of fat and the overall health of fat dramatically influence disease risk; for example, higher concentrations of visceral relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue are associated with greater metabolic risks.
Membrane lipids define small extracellular vesicle subtypes secreted by mesenchymal stromal cellsThe therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent progenitor cells, is attributed to small (50–200 nm) extracellular vesicles (EVs). The presence of a lipid membrane differentiates exosomes and EVs from other macromolecules. Analysis of this lipid membrane revealed three distinct small MSC EV subtypes, each with a differential affinity for cholera toxin B chain (CTB), annexin V (AV), and Shiga toxin B chain (ST) that bind GM1 ganglioside, phosphatidylserine, and globotriaosylceramide, respectively.
The impact of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases on phosphoinositides in cell function and human diseasePhosphoinositides (PIs) are recognized as major signaling molecules in many different functions of eukaryotic cells. PIs can be dephosphorylated by multiple phosphatase activities at the 5-, 4-, and 3- positions. Human PI 5-phosphatases belong to a family of 10 members. Except for inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase A, they all catalyze the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 and/or PI(3,4,5)P3 at the 5- position. PI 5-phosphatases thus directly control the levels of PI(3,4,5)P3 and participate in the fine-tuning regulatory mechanisms of PI(3,4)P2 and PI(4,5)P2.
GOLPH3: a Golgi phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate effector that directs vesicle trafficking and drives cancerGOLPH3 is a peripheral membrane protein localized to the Golgi and its vesicles, but its purpose had been unclear. We found that GOLPH3 binds specifically to the phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol(4)phosphate [PtdIns(4)P], which functions at the Golgi to promote vesicle exit for trafficking to the plasma membrane. PtdIns(4)P is enriched at the trans-Golgi and so recruits GOLPH3. Here, a GOLPH3 complex is formed when it binds to myosin18A (MYO18A), which binds F-actin. This complex generates a pulling force to extract vesicles from the Golgi; interference with this GOLPH3 complex results in dramatically reduced vesicle trafficking.
Signaling through non-membrane nuclear phosphoinositide binding proteins in human health and diseasePhosphoinositide membrane signaling is critical for normal physiology, playing well-known roles in diverse human pathologies. The basic mechanisms governing phosphoinositide signaling within the nucleus, however, have remained deeply enigmatic owing to their presence outside the nuclear membranes. Over 40% of nuclear phosphoinositides can exist in this non-membrane state, held soluble in the nucleoplasm by nuclear proteins that remain largely unidentified. Recently, two nuclear proteins responsible for solubilizing phosphoinositides were identified, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1; NR5A1) and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1; NR5A2), along with two enzymes that directly remodel these phosphoinositide/protein complexes, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN; MMAC) and inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK; ipk2).
VPS34 complexes from a structural perspectiveVPS34 phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to produce PtdIns3P and is the progenitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. VPS34 has a simpler domain organization than class I PI3Ks, which belies the complexity of its quaternary organization, with the enzyme always functioning within larger assemblies. PtdIns3P recruits specific recognition modules that are common in protein-sorting pathways, such as autophagy and endocytic sorting. It is best characterized in two heterotetramers, complexes I and II.
The interface between phosphatidylinositol transfer protein function and phosphoinositide signaling in higher eukaryotesPhosphoinositides are key regulators of a large number of diverse cellular processes that include membrane trafficking, plasma membrane receptor signaling, cell proliferation, and transcription. How a small number of chemically distinct phosphoinositide signals are functionally amplified to exert specific control over such a diverse set of biological outcomes remains incompletely understood. To this end, a novel mechanism is now taking shape, and it involves phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs).
Nuclear phospholipase C isoenzyme imbalance leads to pathologies in brain, hematologic, neuromuscular, and fertility disordersPhosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C (PI-PLCs) are involved in signaling pathways related to critical cellular functions, such as cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, and gene expression. Nuclear PI-PLCs have been studied as key enzymes, molecular targets, and clinical prognostic/diagnostic factors in many physiopathologic processes. Here, we summarize the main studies about nuclear PI-PLCs, specifically, the imbalance of isozymes such as PI-PLCβ1 and PI-PLCζ, in cerebral, hematologic, neuromuscular, and fertility disorders.
Phosphoinositides in the kidneyPhosphoinositides (PIs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of many biological processes. The quality and quantity of PIs is regulated in time and space by the activity of PI kinases and PI phosphatases. The number of PI-metabolizing enzymes exceeds the number of PIs with, in many cases, more than one enzyme controlling the same biochemical step. This would suggest that the PI system has an intrinsic ability to buffer and compensate for the absence of a specific enzymatic activity. However, there are several examples of severe inherited human diseases caused by mutations in one of the PI enzymes, although other enzymes with the same activity are fully functional.
Exosomal lipid composition and the role of ether lipids and phosphoinositides in exosome biologyExosomes are a type of extracellular vesicle released from cells after fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. These vesicles are often enriched in cholesterol, SM, glycosphingolipids, and phosphatidylserine. Lipids not only have a structural role in exosomal membranes but also are essential players in exosome formation and release to the extracellular environment. Our knowledge about the importance of lipids in exosome biology is increasing due to recent technological developments in lipidomics and a stronger focus on the biological functions of these molecules.
Thematic Review Series: Exosomes and Microvesicles: Lipids as Key Components of their Biogenesis and Functions, Cholesterol and the journey of extracellular vesiclesEukaryotic cells employ distinct means to release specific signals and material. Research within the last decade has identified different types of membrane-enclosed structures collectively called extracellular vesicles (EVs) as one of them. EVs fall into two categories depending on their subcellular origin. Exosomes are generated within the endosomal system and reach the extracellular space upon fusion of multivesicular bodies. Microvesicles or microparticles are generated by shedding of the plasma membrane.
Thematic Review Series: Exosomes and Microvesicles: Lipids as Key Components of their Biogenesis and Functions Extracellular vesicles and their content in bioactive lipid mediators: more than a sack of microRNAExtracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are small membrane-bound vesicles released by cells under various conditions. In a multitude of physiological and pathological conditions, EVs contribute to intercellular communication by facilitating exchange of material between cells. Rapidly growing interest is aimed at better understanding EV function and their use as biomarkers. The vast EV cargo includes cytokines, growth factors, organelles, nucleic acids (messenger and micro RNA), and transcription factors.
Thematic Review Series: Living History of Lipids The arachidonic acid monooxygenase: from biochemical curiosity to physiological/pathophysiological significanceThe initial studies of the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by the cytochrome P450 (P450) hemeproteins sought to: a) elucidate the roles for these enzymes in the metabolism of endogenous pools of the FA, b) identify the P450 isoforms involved in AA epoxidation and ω/ω-1 hydroxylation, and c) explore the biological activities of their metabolites. These early investigations provided a foundation for subsequent efforts to establish the physiological relevance of the AA monooxygenase and its contributions to the pathophysiology of, for example, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, nociception, and vascular disease.
A new role for extracellular vesicles: how small vesicles can feed tumors' big appetiteCancer cells must adapt their metabolism in order to meet the energy requirements for cell proliferation, survival in nutrient-deprived environments, and dissemination. In particular, FA metabolism is emerging as a critical process for tumors. FA metabolism can be modulated through intrinsic changes in gene expression or signaling between tumor cells and also in response to signals from the surrounding microenvironment. Among these signals, extracellular vesicles (EVs) could play an important role in FA metabolism remodeling.
Phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in the biogenesis and cargo loading of extracellular vesicles: Thematic Review Series: Exosomes and Microvesicles: Lipids as Key Components of their Biogenesis and FunctionsExtracellular vesicles released by viable cells (exosomes and microvesicles) have emerged as important organelles supporting cell-cell communication. Because of their potential therapeutic significance, important efforts are being made toward characterizing the contents of these vesicles and the mechanisms that govern their biogenesis. It has been recently demonstrated that the lipid modifying enzyme, phospholipase D (PLD)2, is involved in exosome production and acts downstream of the small GTPase, ARF6.
Extracellular vesicles: lipids as key components of their biogenesis and functionsIntercellular communication has been known for decades to involve either direct contact between cells or to operate via circulating molecules, such as cytokines, growth factors, or lipid mediators. During the last decade, we have begun to appreciate the increasing importance of intercellular communication mediated by extracellular vesicles released by viable cells either from plasma membrane shedding (microvesicles, also named microparticles) or from an intracellular compartment (exosomes). Exosomes and microvesicles circulate in all biological fluids and can trigger biological responses at a distance.
Plant lipid transfer proteins: are we finally closing in on the roles of these enigmatic proteins?The nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small compact proteins folded around a tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity, making them suitable for lipid binding and transport. LTPs are encoded by large gene families in all land plants, but they have not been identified in algae or any other organisms. Thus, LTPs are considered key proteins for plant survival on and colonization of land. LTPs are abundantly expressed in most plant tissues, both above and below ground. They are usually localized to extracellular spaces outside the plasma membrane.
Role of lipid transfer proteins in loading CD1 antigen-presenting moleculesResearch to connect lipids with immunology is growing, but details about the specific roles of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) in antigen presentation remain unclear. A single class of major histocompatibility class-like molecules, called CD1 molecules, can present lipids and glycolipids to the immune system. These molecules all have a common hydrophobic antigen-binding groove. The loading of this groove with various lipids throughout the life of a CD1 molecule defines the immune recognition of lipids by T cells.
Role of sphingolipids in the biogenesis and biological activity of extracellular vesiclesExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane vesicles released by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells; they not only serve physiological functions, such as disposal of cellular components, but also play pathophysiologic roles in inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Common molecular mechanisms for EV biogenesis are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla, and inhibition of this biogenesis may provide an avenue for therapeutic research. The involvement of sphingolipids (SLs) and their enzymes on EV biogenesis and release has not received much attention in current research.
Lipid transfer proteins rectify inter-organelle flux and accurately deliver lipids at membrane contact sitesThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main center for the synthesis of various lipid types in cells, and newly synthesized lipids are delivered from the ER to other organelles. In the past decade, various lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) have been recognized as mediators of lipid transport from the ER to other organelles; inter-organelle transport occurs at membrane contact sites (MCSs) and in a nonvesicular manner. Although the intermembrane transfer reaction catalyzed by LTPs is an equilibrium reaction, various types of newly synthesized lipids are transported unidirectionally in cells.
The role of lipoprotein (a) in chronic kidney disease: Thematic Review Series: Lipoprotein (a): Coming of Age at LastLipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] and its measurement, structure and function, the impact of ethnicity and environmental factors, epidemiological and genetic associations with vascular disease, and new prospects in drug development have been extensively examined throughout this Thematic Review Series on Lp(a). Studies suggest that the kidney has a role in Lp(a) catabolism, and that Lp(a) levels are increased in association with kidney disease only for people with large apo(a) isoforms. By contrast, in those patients with large protein losses, as in the nephrotic syndrome and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, Lp(a) is increased irrespective of apo(a) isoform size.
Is ABCA1 a lipid transfer protein?ABCA1 functions as a lipid transporter because it mediates the transfer of cellular phospholipid (PL) and free (unesterified) cholesterol (FC) to apoA-I and related proteins present in the extracellular medium. ABCA1 is a membrane PL translocase and its enzymatic activity leads to transfer of PL molecules from the cytoplasmic leaflet to the exofacial leaflet of a cell plasma membrane (PM). The presence of active ABCA1 in the PM promotes binding of apoA-I to the cell surface. About 10% of this bound apoA-I interacts directly with ABCA1 and stabilizes the transporter.
Phospholipid transfer protein: its impact on lipoprotein homeostasis and atherosclerosisPhospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is one of the major modulators of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis development in humans; however, we still do not quite understand the mechanisms. In mouse models, PLTP overexpression induces atherosclerosis, while its deficiency reduces it. Thus, mouse models were used to explore the mechanisms. In this review, I summarize the major progress made in the PLTP research field and emphasize its impact on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, as well as its regulation.
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein and its inhibitorsMost of the cholesterol in plasma is in an esterified form that is generated in potentially cardioprotective HDLs. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates bidirectional transfers of cholesteryl esters (CEs) and triglycerides (TGs) between plasma lipoproteins. Because CE originates in HDLs and TG enters the plasma as a component of VLDLs, activity of CETP results in a net mass transfer of CE from HDLs to VLDLs and LDLs, and of TG from VLDLs to LDLs and HDLs. As inhibition of CETP activity increases the concentration of HDL-cholesterol and decreases the concentration of VLDL- and LDL-cholesterol, it has the potential to reduce atherosclerotic CVD.
Dynamic role of the transmembrane glycoprotein CD36 (SR-B2) in cellular fatty acid uptake and utilizationThe widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein, cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), a scavenger receptor class B protein (SR-B2), serves many functions in lipid metabolism and signaling. Here, we review CD36's role in facilitating cellular long-chain fatty acid uptake across the plasma membrane, particularly in heart and skeletal muscles. CD36 acts in concert with other membrane proteins, such as peripheral plasma membrane fatty acid-binding protein, and is an intracellular docking site for cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein.