Very long chain fatty acid-containing lipids: a decade of novel insights from the study of ELOVL4Lipids play essential roles in maintaining cell structure and function by modulating membrane fluidity and cell signaling. The fatty acid elongase-4 (ELOVL4) protein, expressed in retina, brain, Meibomian glands, skin, testes and sperm, is an essential enzyme that mediates tissue-specific biosynthesis of both VLC-PUFA and VLC-saturated fatty acids (VLC-SFA). These fatty acids play critical roles in maintaining retina and brain function, neuroprotection, skin permeability barrier maintenance, and sperm function, among other important cellular processes.
The lipid biology of sepsisSepsis, defined as the dysregulated immune response to an infection leading to organ dysfunction, is one of the leading causes of mortality around the globe. Despite the significant progress in delineating the underlying mechanisms of sepsis pathogenesis, there are currently no effective treatments or specific diagnostic biomarkers in the clinical setting. The perturbation of cell signaling mechanisms, inadequate inflammation resolution, and energy imbalance, all of which are altered during sepsis, are also known to lead to defective lipid metabolism.
Clinical lipidomics: realizing the potential of lipid profilingDysregulation of lipid metabolism plays a major role in the etiology and sequelae of inflammatory disorders, cardiometabolic and neurological diseases, and several forms of cancer. Recent advances in lipidomic methodology allow comprehensive lipidomic profiling of clinically relevant biological samples, enabling researchers to associate lipid species and metabolic pathways with disease onset and progression. The resulting data serve not only to advance our fundamental knowledge of the underlying disease process but also to develop risk assessment models to assist in the diagnosis and management of disease.
The PCSK9 discovery, an inactive protease with varied functions in hypercholesterolemia, viral infections, and cancerIn 2003, the sequences of mammalian proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) were reported. Radiolabeling pulse-chase analyses demonstrated that PCSK9 was synthesized as a precursor (proPCSK9) that undergoes autocatalytic cleavage in the endoplasmic reticulum into PCSK9, which is then secreted as an inactive enzyme in complex with its inhibitory prodomain. Its high mRNA expression in liver hepatocytes and its gene localization on chromosome 1p32, a third locus associated with familial hypercholesterolemia, other than LDLR or APOB, led us to identify three patient families expressing the PCSK9 variants S127R or F216L.
Overview of how N32 and N34 elovanoids sustain sight by protecting retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptorsThe essential fatty acid DHA (22:6, omega-3 or n-3) is enriched in and required for the membrane biogenesis and function of photoreceptor cells (PRCs), synapses, mitochondria, etc. of the CNS. PRC DHA becomes an acyl chain at the sn-2 of phosphatidylcholine, amounting to more than 50% of the PRC outer segment phospholipids, where phototransduction takes place. Very long chain PUFAs (n-3, ≥ 28 carbons) are at the sn-1 of this phosphatidylcholine molecular species and interact with rhodopsin. PRC shed their tips (DHA-rich membrane disks) daily, which in turn are phagocytized by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where DHA is recycled back to PRC inner segments to be used for the biogenesis of new photoreceptor membranes.