The lipid biology of sepsisSepsis, defined as the dysregulated immune response to an infection leading to organ dysfunction, is one of the leading causes of mortality around the globe. Despite the significant progress in delineating the underlying mechanisms of sepsis pathogenesis, there are currently no effective treatments or specific diagnostic biomarkers in the clinical setting. The perturbation of cell signaling mechanisms, inadequate inflammation resolution, and energy imbalance, all of which are altered during sepsis, are also known to lead to defective lipid metabolism.
Bisretinoid phospholipid and vitamin A aldehyde: shining a lightVitamin A aldehyde covalently bound to opsin protein is embedded in a phospholipid-rich membrane that supports photon absorption and phototransduction in photoreceptor cell outer segments. Following absorption of a photon, the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of visual pigment in photoreceptor cells isomerizes to all-trans-retinal. To maintain photosensitivity 11-cis-retinal must be replaced. At the same time, however, all-trans-retinal has to be handled so as to prevent nonspecific aldehyde activity.