- Dysregulation of lipid metabolism plays a major role in the etiology and sequelae of inflammatory disorders, cardiometabolic and neurological diseases, and several forms of cancer. Recent advances in lipidomic methodology allow comprehensive lipidomic profiling of clinically relevant biological samples, enabling researchers to associate lipid species and metabolic pathways with disease onset and progression. The resulting data serve not only to advance our fundamental knowledge of the underlying disease process but also to develop risk assessment models to assist in the diagnosis and management of disease.
- Phosphoinositide membrane signaling is critical for normal physiology, playing well-known roles in diverse human pathologies. The basic mechanisms governing phosphoinositide signaling within the nucleus, however, have remained deeply enigmatic owing to their presence outside the nuclear membranes. Over 40% of nuclear phosphoinositides can exist in this non-membrane state, held soluble in the nucleoplasm by nuclear proteins that remain largely unidentified. Recently, two nuclear proteins responsible for solubilizing phosphoinositides were identified, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1; NR5A1) and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1; NR5A2), along with two enzymes that directly remodel these phosphoinositide/protein complexes, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN; MMAC) and inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK; ipk2).
- Lipids encompass a wide variety of molecules such as fatty acids, sterols, phospholipids, and triglycerides. These molecules represent a highly efficient energy resource and can act as structural elements of membranes or as signaling molecules that regulate metabolic homeostasis through many mechanisms. Cells possess an integrated set of response systems to adapt to stresses such as those imposed by nutrient fluctuations during feeding-fasting cycles. While lipids are pivotal for these homeostatic processes, they can also contribute to detrimental metabolic outcomes.
- The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle important for regulating calcium homeostasis, lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, and posttranslational modification and trafficking. Numerous environmental, physiological, and pathological insults disturb ER homeostasis, referred to as ER stress, in which a collection of conserved intracellular signaling pathways, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated to maintain ER function for cell survival. However, excessive and/or prolonged UPR activation leads to initiation of self-destruction through apoptosis.
- Levels of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], a complex between an LDL-like lipid moiety containing one copy of apoB, and apo(a), a plasminogen-derived carbohydrate-rich hydrophilic protein, are primarily genetically regulated. Although stable intra-individually, Lp(a) levels have a skewed distribution inter-individually and are strongly impacted by a size polymorphism of the LPA gene, resulting in a variable number of kringle IV (KIV) units, a key motif of apo(a). The variation in KIV units is a strong predictor of plasma Lp(a) levels resulting in stable plasma levels across the lifespan.
- The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the physiological roles of apoA-IV in metabolism, and to underscore the potential for apoA-IV to be a focus for new therapies aimed at the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders. ApoA-IV is primarily synthesized by the small intestine, attached to chylomicrons by enterocytes, and secreted into intestinal lymph during fat absorption. In circulation, apoA-IV is associated with HDL and chylomicron remnants, but a large portion is lipoprotein free.